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Online casino players have the highest standards for where they put their money in. That’s why, in the UK, the most popular real money games websites happen to also be the best ones. That has been confirmed by many expert players, including the ones that work with us.
They, in fact, have tested and reviewed over 100 of the biggest online casinos in the UK and ranked them according to our pre-determined criteria – game selection, bonuses, mobile compatibility and live dealer games. All of that with the sole purpose of finding out which are the casinos that are worth our time the most! The result you just saw above – a ranking list of the top 10 best casino sites in the UK.
We are committed to ranking and reviewing real money casinos to bring you only top-rated sites that you can trust. This top 10 casino list is updated every month, so you will always find valid bonuses and reliable honest information here.
We will only ever list UKGC-licensed casinos. As such, when you play at any of our featured online casinos, you can enjoy the peace of mind knowing that your experience will be safe. Our long-term goal is to make bestcasinosites.net the number one casino comparison site in the world and a trusted source for all things gambling.
How to Register at a Casino Site and Start Playing
Online casino operators go out of their way to make the registration process easy for you. It will generally take you a matter of minutes to create a new account, make a deposit and start playing real money games. Still, it is worth keeping in mind that you will need to provide a fair few details to create a casino account.
When you join a casino site, you can expect to provide various details including your name, address, and date of birth. This is to comply with the strict standards set by the Gambling Commission. The Commission’s main responsibility is to protect players, and they require detailed information to prevent underage gambling, money laundering, and problem gambling.
Here you can see the steps to follow to register and play at an online casino.
- 1. Choose a casino
- a. pick from our list of the top 10 online casinos for British players
- b. or learn how to make your own research using the guide that follows
- c. read the welcome bonus terms
- 2. Find the registration button
- a. usually prominently displayed in the header of the site
- b. in most cases called ‘Register’ or ‘Sign Up’
- 3. Fill out the registration form with the requested info:
- Postal Code
- Phone Number
- Date of Birth
- Secret Question
- 4. Make a deposit and claim your bonus
- a. select a preferred payment method
- b. deposit an amount that will trigger the bonus
- 5. Start playing your favourite games!
Guide to the Best Online Casinos in the United Kingdom – How We Rank
All good online casino sites have certain common traits and comply with the highest standards of the gambling industry. If you’re planning on playing for real money, then it’s crucial for you to learn how to assess the quality of the site and make sure that it’s not rigged.
When rating online casinos, we always consider first and foremost the security of the operator and then everything else, from games and bonuses to customer support and payments. You can find more information about how we rank online casinos on this page.
Security Should Come First at UK Online Casino Sites
When real money gaming is involved, there’s nothing more important than the safety and the fairness of the casino. The first thing you should do when checking a site you haven’t played at yet is whether or not it’s licensed by the official gambling authority of the country you’re residing in.
For British players that’s pretty simple – check if it’s licensed by the United Kingdom Gambling Commission as this is the only organisation that issues remote gambling licences in Great Britain. Other European countries also have their own gambling authorities, but most of them recognise the licences of external institutions as well.
Some of the other licences you will often encounter at gambling sites are the ones issued by the Gibraltar Gambling Authority, the Malta Gaming Authority, Antigua & Barbuda’s Directorate of Offshore Gaming and the Alderney Gambling Control Commission, since taxation and real money gambling laws in these jurisdictions are more convenient.
UK Gambling Commission Licence
The Gambling Commission was established under the Gambling Act 2005. It is responsible for regulating gambling in Great Britain. Furthermore, since the introduction of the Gambling (Licensing and Advertising) Act 2014, any operator intending to accept players in Britain must obtain a licence from the Commission.
For this reason, British players should only play at UKGC-licensed casinos, as this ensures the casino site is operating legally. Likewise, for players worldwide, a UK licence is a clear sign that an online casino is legit and not a scam site. The key objectives of the UKGC include preventing criminal activity, namely money laundering.
They also protect children and vulnerable people from gambling-related harm. The Commission also ensures that gambling is conducted fairly and in an open way. A UK licence is the single most reliable way of knowing that a casino site is trustworthy.
Not only must an operator meet strict standards to obtain a licence, they are also closely regulated to verify that they are maintaining them. The Gambling Commission carries out assessments on licensees to ensure that they are complying with the licensing requirements. Operators are regulated according to the licence conditions and codes of practice (LCCP).
This includes everything from technical standards for protecting your personal data to independent testing of games to verify their integrity. It sets clear standards regarding bonus offers, verifying under-age gambling is prevented and other player protection measures. The Commission are not shy in upholding these standards either, taking regulatory action in the shape of huge fines or the retraction of gambling licences where operators fail to meet their obligations.
Online Casino Testing Agencies
Fair games are a must if you want to play with real cash. Yet how can you be confident that games are not rigged when you play at an online casino? Well, as we mentioned earlier, an operator must invite independent testing of their games as part of licensing and regulatory standards. There are a selection of trusted independent test houses that verify the integrity of games.
Some of the leading testing agencies include eCOGRA, iTech Labs and GLI. Such testing authorities perform technical audits of all games and produce payout reports showing how much of all players’ money is returned as winnings across all games on offer at a casino.
They perform rigorous testing of the random number generator (RNG) to confirm that game outcomes are truly random and not fixed in any way. Reputable casinos will also share these monthly payout reports on their sites, providing transparency and reassurance that the games can be trusted.
Online Casino Awards
Winning a prestigious industry award speaks volumes about a casino’s merit. There are a range of awards ceremonies that recognise excellence across the online gambling industry. The most important ones include the Global Gaming Awards, the EGR Awards, the IGA awards and the Global Regulatory awards.
When we review online casinos, we check out any accolades that have been gained by the operator. With awards that recognise the number one operator, mobile app, game, social responsibility and more, winners of these titles stand out from the crowd
Not all good online casinos have such awards but every time you see a site that bears one of these awards symbols you can be sure that you are looking at one of the best online casinos on the Internet. After all, these prestigios organisations award only reputable and trustworthy online casinos.
Responsibility in Gambling
For most people, gambling is fun. Yet for others, it can become a serious problem. The operators we review on our site all promote responsible gambling. They offer you various self-help tools to manage the time and money you spend gambling.
They also invest significantly in training their staff to recognise problem gambling behaviours and to be able to offer advice. Reputable casinos partner with responsible gambling organisations that specialise in the prevention of gambling addiction and the provision of help and treatment to anyone affected by problem gambling behaviour.
Some such leading organisations include GamCare, GAMSTOP, GambleAware, Gamblers Anonymous and the Responsible Gambling Trust. You will see the logos of such organisations displayed on the websites of reliable casinos.
The Safest Casinos on the Internet
One thing is for sure: you should never gamble with your safety when you play real money casino games online. You will provide sensitive personal information when you create a casino account and make deposits online. As such, you need to have complete confidence that your data will be safeguarded and you’ll have all the needed tools to play responsibly.
The Uk’s Most Popular Online Casino Games – A Comprehensive List
One of the most important criteria in finding a top casino site is undoubtedly the game selection on offer. The good thing about online operators is that they don’t have any restrictions in terms of how many games they can add to their sites, unlike brick and mortar casinos. Still, all casino sites have different game selections depending on which software houses they work with. These collections differ in number, quality and diversity, but usually consist for the most part of different video slots and some table and card games. Also, there might be some video poker, scratch cards and arcade games, though not all Internet casinos feature them. You should choose a site that features a large and diverse game selection with the types of games that you want to play. Here is a list of casino games available at the best casino sites in the UK:
- Video Poker
- Scratch Cards
- Casino Hold’em
- Caribbean Stud Poker
- Three Card Poker
- Pai Gow Poker
- Red Dog Poker
- Sic Bo
- Dream Catcher
Most online casinos feature a great number of the above-listed game types but it’s always good to consider that the variety of online casino games selections vary greatly from website to website. Let’s say you want to play Texas Hold’em Bonus Poker – a very specific title.
It’s definitely better to first check if the casino has the games before registering and depositing. Other thing that’s worth checking is the minimum and maximum limits that you can bet on a game – especially important information for high rollers.
Best Online Casino for Slot Machine Games
Visit any online casino and you’ll find that slots dominate the game selection. This is great news for slots players as you will never be stuck for choice. Yet, an online casino’s slots selection can vary greatly, depending on the game developers they use to provide their game portfolio. Some casinos use a single leading software provider to exclusively power their slots selection.
Others handpick games from numerous developers, to offer a diverse range of slots from both leading game developers and specialist bespoke design studios. A good slots casino will boast hundreds of games, with a wide range of themes and special features. They will also feature progressive jackpot slots, that offer the chance to win millions of pounds from a single spin.
There are plenty of enticing casino bonuses that are ideal for playing slots. You can boost your first deposit with a matched bonus. You will also find that many casinos offer free spins as part of their welcome bonus deal. Yet to find the best bonus for slots, you need to keep a few factors in mind.
The biggest bonuses do not always offer you the most convenient deal. You also need to check for fair bonus terms linked to play-through requirements, minimum deposit, validity period and game restrictions before deciding whether to opt in. You should watch out for any excluded slots and any that have a smaller weighting towards bonus wagering.
Be aware also that free spins usually have a shorter validity. You should always read any bonus conditions to be sure you understand the offer before you accept it. That way you can be confident that you are getting a good deal.
Top Rated Online Roulette Sites for Brits
Roulette is one of the most popular casino games and you’ll find it at all top casino sites. The classic game of chance is simple to play and offers the potential for big wins. It is a popular choice with both beginners and experienced players alike.
The best roulette sites will feature the 3 most popular classic versions of the game: European, French and American, with table limits to cater to all types of players. Aside from traditional versions of the game, you can also find plenty of interesting variants, that provide unique gameplay and even jackpot prizes.
If you want to play roulette with a casino bonus, there are a few things you need to look out for. This game has a low house edge, and as such, some operators exclude the game from their welcome bonus altogether. When roulette is included, it will often have a lower weighting, meaning only a percentage of all wagers on the game will only contribute towards clearing wagering requirements. It is also worth keeping your eyes peeled for special table game bonuses. These often offer more favourable conditions for playing roulette and can be a great choice for roulette players.
Top Online Blackjack Sites
Blackjack is a firm favourite with many players. The game allows you to put your skills to use, rather than simply relying on chance. When played with the optimum strategy, you can reduce the house edge to a fraction to increase your chances of success. The best casino sites for blackjack feature many versions of the much-loved card game.
As well as classic game variants, they also offer a range of exciting and innovative variants that tweak the rules to provide a uniquely entertaining gaming experience. You can also play against a real dealer with live blackjack featured at all top rated sites.
Whilst the game selection is key to finding a top blackjack site, another factor that makes operators stand out is welcome bonuses with conditions that favour blackjack players. Whilst there are some bonuses specifically available for this card game, they are rare.
However, you will find that you can play the game with many casino welcome bonuses. The important thing to remember is to check for favourable wagering requirements and weightings for blackjack. Fair and achievable playthrough requirements are essential for spotting the best bonuses for playing blackjack online.
The Best Payout Online Casinos
If you want to win money playing games of chance, then you will no doubt be interesting in learning which casinos have the highest payouts. Each game offered at a casino site has a theoretical RTP.
This return to player percentage expresses how much money bet on the game will be paid back to players over the long run. Whilst slots have a wide range of RTPs, generally speaking, table games and video poker offer the possibility of higher returns.
Licensed casino operators are audited by independent testing agencies every month. These testing bodies produce payout reports that detail the exact percentage of all money bet at the casino that has been paid out as winnings. As such, you can find the best paying casinos by checking which has the highest percentage listed in their payout report. Keep in mind that the payout percentage of a casino will change every month. Yet it is a good guide to finding the casinos that payout the best. Consideration should also be given to how fast withdrawals are processed, with the highest payout casinos providing swift, hassle-free withdrawals.
The Top Online Casino Bonus Offers in the UK
A real highlight of playing casino games at an online casino is the generous welcome bonuses that you can take advantage of. There is no shortage of offers up for grabs, with operators providing big rewards to entice you to join. New player bonuses come in all shapes and sizes.
You will find deals that match your first deposit with a certain percentage of bonus funds. Others come as a package deal, where you earn bonuses over a number of deposits. Many bonuses also include free spins for certain slots. What they all have in common however is that they extend your playing time and give you more opportunities to win.
Whilst casino bonuses are undoubtedly an advantage for players, they can also be the cause of complaints. This is because some players, particularly beginners are unfamiliar with the wagering requirements attached to them. The play-through requirement determines how many times you need to play through the bonus before you can withdraw the winnings you make with it.
Also important is the weighting of different games. Whilst slots usually count entirely towards bonus wagering, games such as roulette and video poker tend to have a smaller weighting, in the region of 10-20%. Some bonuses exclude certain games entirely. It is therefore really important to check the bonus terms and conditions for favourable conditions for the games you want to play.
In our full list of the best casino bonuses and latest offers, you will find many examples of promotions that are valid for all types of games. You should also be aware of the minimum deposit needed to claim a bonus. Plus, check the validity period, so you know how long you have to meet the wagering requirements before the bonus expires.
Safe Casino Software with Many Available Games
Casino operators do not generally power their sites themselves. Instead, they turn to specialist software providers to create their casino websites. The overall experience of playing at an online casino can differ significantly depending on which software an operator uses to power their platform and games.
Reliable software with many games is imperative for a casino to be considered one of the best. Top quality casino software ensures that the platform is fast, intuitive and safe to use, with games that run smoothly without crashing. It also embraces multi-platform gaming, with games working flawlessly on desktop and mobile devices.
We have already mentioned that online casinos are subject to strict regulation from the United Kingdom Gambling Commission and other authorities. The same is true of software developers. They must also adhere to high standards and hold valid licences to be able to power online casino sites and provide games.
Casino software must meet high levels of technical security, ensuring that the player’s sensitive data is protected, and transactions are encrypted. Games are also independently tested and audited to verify that they are fair.
The Best Online Casino Software Providers
There are dozens of software providers that specialise in the development of online casino platforms and games. Yet of the many software houses in operation, there are 3 that stand out the most.
Playtech are a world-renowned provider of casino software and games. They are pioneers of the industry, and a provider of download, instant-play, mobile and live casino platforms. They boast a diverse range of top quality games.
Microgaming are one of the oldest software providers in the iGaming industry, with over 20 years’ experience of providing quality online gambling platforms. They also boast the biggest selection of casino games by far.
NetEnt may not offer the largest game portfolio, yet it is perfectly formed. NetEnt games are famed for their exceptional graphical quality and innovative features, with arguably the top rated slots in the online casino industry.
Live Dealer Casino Software
Live casino games are all the rage and playing with real dealers is the preference for many players. Whilst many enjoy the convenience and accessibility of playing casino games online, for some, they lack the buzz and atmosphere that you experience playing in a brick and mortar casino. As such, live dealer games provide a great solution.
They help to bridge the gap between playing online or in a land-based location. Whilst there is no shortage of casino developers in the industry, when it comes to live gaming, there are significantly fewer providers that develop live games. Of the companies that develop live casino games, there is one provider that is the undisputed leader – Evolution Gaming.
The specialist live casino developer boasts the largest and most diverse selection of games with real dealers. Games are streamed in high definition from dedicated studios, and they even stream some games live directly from prestigious land-based casinos.
Live games offer a more immersive playing experience than RNG games and all the best online casinos feature them on their sites. You play with professional and friendly dealers, who you can interact with as you enjoy the games. Some players are suspicious of casino games, not trusting that the results are fair. And whilst there is no doubt that games at licensed casinos are not rigged, you get an extra level of reassurance and confidence when you play with real dealers. Rather than relying on an RNG to provide game results, you actually see the ball spin round the roulette table and land on a winning number. Likewise, you see the cards being dealt in games such as blackjack and poker. And if the advantages of playing live casino games were not already plentiful enough, you can also grab some lucrative deposit bonuses for live dealer games.
The Best Online Casino Apps for UK Players
What could be more convenient than playing real money games of chance on your mobile phone or tablet? The great news is that the casino industry has embraced the trend for mobile gaming and all the best casino sites have developed top-notch apps that allow you to play on the go.
The best operators have designed their casino platforms for multi-platform gaming. With mobile responsive designs, playing on a casino app gives you a like for like experience of playing on a desktop PC, but with the added convenience of being able to play anytime, anywhere. Casino apps are compatible with pretty much all iOS and Android devices, making them accessible to all.
Top casino apps feature a rich selection of games that are fully optimised for mobile play. They also allow you to deposit and withdraw safely from the palm of your hand. Learn more at our dedicated mobile casinos page.
Every trustworthy casino site has a 24/7 support service that is ready to answer any questions and help with any problem at all hours. Players often fail to check how they can seek help from the casino until they’ve stumbled upon some issue, which definitely shouldn’t be the case, especially if they plan on playing for real money. Therefore, always remember to check the working hours of the casino’s customer support and whether they support the three most popular methods of contact.
Online Casino Credits & Cashier
One of the biggest advantages of playing at Internet casinos as opposed to at land-based ones is that the former offer you way more opportunities to claim generous casino cash bonuses. And though there are some free bonuses available, the best offers are the ones that require you to make a deposit.
You can do that by using one of the many payment methods that online casinos accept, though it’s important to know that different operators support different online payment services. While all operators accept bank transfers and the most popular credit and debit cards such as VISA, Mastercard and Maestro, there are still very few gambling sites that accept mobile billing.
Also, they usually support some e-wallets and prepaid cards, but not all types. Here’s an overview of the supported payment methods at the top 10 UK online casinos.
Another detail you should keep in mind when checking the accepted payments is the supported currencies. All players residing in the United Kingdom should, of course, make sure that the casino supports the British Pound which should be the case if the casino is really licensed by the UK Gambling Commission.
As for the non-UK players, they should check if the casino supports the currency of their country. You can still play at a site that doesn’t support your currency as long as it’s legal in your country but you should keep in mind that most gambling operators apply small taxes for currency exchange.
Recommended PayPal Casinos
If you are not certain which method to use, let us recommend PayPal – one of the safest and fastest payment methods that online casinos accept.
This e-wallet might not be supported by all casino sites, but is a great pick also because it allows you to conceal your banking details from the casino. On top of that, PayPal supports over 26 currencies, making it a preferred payment method for players from many different countries.
Good alternative payment methods to PayPal are Skrill, Neteller and paysafecard. The worst is probably the bank transfer.
Online Casino Reviews – How Do the Sites in Our Top 10 Compare?
It can be a tough job identifying the best online casinos. Of course, a United Kingdom licence is a must to ensure the casino is legal. Yet all legal casinos have both advantages and disadvantages. To assess a casino, and find the right choice for your personal needs, there are various factors to take into consideration.
The quality and diversity of the game selection is important, including the live and mobile titles. Operators also offer different options for depositing and withdrawing, as well as featuring different limits and timescales. Bonuses are also important, with fair terms for the games you want to play.
Online Casino 101: Frequently Asked Questions
We aim to provide a completely comprehensive and useful guide to online casinos. An important part of our research involves identifying the questions that first-time players at casino websites usually ask, then answering them fully and clearly.
In the following section, you will find the most frequently asked online-casino related questions from newcomers.
Which is the best online casino site in the UK?
The best online casino site in the UK offers a combination of great games, rewarding bonuses, reliable software and high levels of security and player protection. There are so many operators competing for your custom, that they are constantly trying to surpass each other.
The competition between casinos means they regularly update their bonuses and special promotions. They also strive to offer the latest releases and create partnerships with a diverse range of developers to ensure their game selection is expansive and unique. It is for these reasons that the #1 casino site can change frequently.
Which Online Casino has the best odds?
The casino with the best odds is the one that has the highest combined theoretical RTP of its games and the most convenient bonus terms. Different casino games have different odds of winning. Whilst table games such as blackjack usually feature an RTP of over 99%, games such as slots have a much wider range of returns.
Unfortunately, it is not that easy to calculate which casino has the best odds, but you can pick a title with a high RTP and start from there. Keep in mind that games with a low house edge usually do not count entirely towards bonus wagering requirements. So, you should check the bonus conditions and only play with a bonus if it has convenient terms.
Which Online Casino has the best payouts?
The online casino that has the best payouts according to our research is the one that has the highest percentage in their payout report. Licensed casino websites are audited by independent bodies, which analyse payouts across all games. Testing agencies such as eCOGRA, GLI and iTech Labs create payout reports which detail the percentage of all bets placed at the casino over the month which have been returned to players as winnings. Whilst the payout report changes from one month to another, it is a good indication of how much the casino pays out and can help you to identify which casino site has the best payouts.
Can you win money at online casinos?
Yes, you can win money on online casinos. In fact, many people have won cash at casino websites. Licensed and regulated casino sites feature fair games, which have been independently verified. As games are not fixed at legit casino websites, then you can win real cash when you play them. Furthermore, not only do regulated casinos provide you with fair games, but they also boast secure payments. So, you can be confident that once you have won money, you will be able to collect your winnings without any hassle.
What is the most popular online casino game?
The most popular casino game is slots. Slots are, without a doubt the most played casino game nowadays. The simple rules and engaging gameplay make slots a favourite with players online. From traditional one-armed bandit style retro slots to the most graphically advanced and feature rich video slots, there is something to appeal to every player’s individual preferences. Online slots also offer the chance to win life-changing sums of money, with progressive jackpot slots boasting payouts in the millions.
What online casino game has the best chance of winning?
Blackjack is the casino game with the best chance of winning. The popular card game has a high RTP, exceeding 99%. With a house edge of less than 1%, the chances of winning are much higher than playing slot machines and many other casino games. Blackjack also has an optimal strategy, which can be used to reduce the house edge to a tiny fraction. There are also some Video Poker variants which boast an RTP of above 99%, including Deuces Wild and Jacks or Better. In a similar way to blackjack, winning in Video Poker depends in part on the player’s skills.
Which online slot machines pay the best?
The online slot machines that pay the best are those with the highest RTP. The 5 online slots with the highest payouts are Goblin’s Cave (99.32%), Ugga Bugga (99.07%), Mega Joker (99%), Jackpot 6000 (98.9%) and Starmania (97.87%). The online slots that pay the best according to the biggest wins are Mega Fortune and Mega Moolah. Microgaming’s iconic Mega Moolah slot holds the world record for the highest ever payout from a slot machine, with its highest jackpot payout exceeding £13 million.
Can you play online casino games for free?
Yes, you can play casino games for free. Most online casinos offer free play demo versions of most of their games. Although live dealer games are the exception, as they can only be played with real money. Playing for free online gives you the chance to experience what the game has to offer before you part with your cash.
Playing demo slots enables you to get to grips with the features, whilst playing table games for free is a good way to get to know the rules and try out different gameplay strategies. Of course, when you play for free, you will not win any real cash. To win cash, you will need to deposit and play with real money too.
Which is the best online gambling site?
The best online gambling site according to our research is William Hill. The brand is a household name and synonymous with trust and integrity. The company was founded over 80 years ago and has proven to be highly reputable.
William Hill offer many gambling products. Not only do they have a dominant position on British high streets with their bookmakers’ shops, but also they boast an impressive online sportsbook. You can also play bingo, poker, lotto and casino games online, with all their gambling products conveniently collated on their site.
They accept a wide range of payment methods for depositing safely. They also provide fast, hassle-free payouts. William Hill is a responsible operator and treats player protection as a top priority.
Which are the best casino sites with no wagering requirements?
Fortunately, the online casinos understand their players’ needs and many of them have decided to offer convenient no wagering bonuses. As you can see in the table below, most operators have special free spins promotions with no wagering requirements.
Bear in mind, however, that the free spins package might be limited to certain slots only. For more information about our best casino sites with no wagering requirement, please consult our Top 10 Online Casinos table.
How Many Casinos Are There in the UK?
The latest numbers show that there are over 150 casinos over and across the United Kingdom, most of which in England, with an impressive number of 28 casinos situated in London.
Some of the biggest casino chains are The Hippodrome, Grosvenor and Aspers. What would be of interest to online players is that both Grosvenor Casino and The Hippodrome have also virtual platforms where you can enjoy their latest games.
The online casinos that are currently registered and regulated in the UK by the United Kingdom Gambling Commission are undergoing through tests and are proven to be safe and reliable.
The RNG (Random Number Generator) is the software that guarantees that the results of any given spin or hand is 100% random and fair.
Slots are currently the most popular casino games. The basic rules of this game haven’t changed since 1899 when Charles Fay assembled the first slot machine. A player bets and spins a set of reels with symbols. Each of these spinning reels stops at a random position. The player wins if the reels stop in a way that they make a line of the same symbols. The rarer the winning symbols, the higher the amount of the win. The size of the win for each winning combination is defined in the paytable.
Nowadays the randomness of mechanically stopped reels has been replaced by random numbers generated by a computer, but the principles remain same. These principles of randomness are honoured by every licensed game provider. The randomness of slots has several very interesting consequences, and it is important for every smart slots player to understand them.
The majority of online slots still use reels to represent the result of each spin. Despite the fact that the reels are rendered by a computer, the game math under the hood still has 3 to 5 sets of symbols (virtual reels) that stop at random positions. Why change something that has worked fine for years, right?
Modern online slots have a lot of new features which wouldn’t be possible with mechanical reels. Expanding wilds, scatters, free spins, bonus rounds, and others.
There is one thing all fair slot games have in common: the outcome of each round is based exclusively on a random number provided by a Random Number Generator (RNG). The random number generated by the RNG “tells” the reels when to stop and therefore decides the outcome of the game. That means that the same game with the same random number must always give the same outcome.
The higher the size of your bets, the higher (usually) the RTP of your betting system. We assume that all the other rules of the betting system remain the same.
Your win (or loss) in every round is determined purely by your luck. The outcome isn’t influenced by your previous wins/loses, nor the wins/losses of other players, nor by anything predictable. It’s just you and electromagnetic noise in the RNG – simply pure gambling.
The outcome of a game isn’t influenced by your previous wins/loses, nor the wins/losses of other players, nor by anything predictable.
This reminds me that I should explain how RNGs work. Modern RNGs used in online casinos are dedicated hardware devices that generate random numbers out of electromagnetic noise. It’s like an old television without signal – a lot of black and white dots. Black pixel is 0, white pixel is 1. Take a photo of a small part of a TV screen, convert the pixels into 1s and 0s, write them into a text file and you have a random number.
RNG hardware generates thousands of random numbers every second. So on one hand, you will change the outcome of the next round if you press the start button one second later. However, on the other hand, you have no chance to predict whether the outcome will be better for you or not. So the fair randomness remains.
Now you may ask: if slots are not manipulated, how do casinos make money on them?
The answer is simple: Slot games are designed in a way that they pay out less than players bet in the long run.
Imagine a simple game: you give me $1 and flip a coin. If you get heads, I’ll give you $1.50 back. If you get tails, you lose. It’s quite obvious that the chances are on my side. You can win if you are lucky and play only a few rounds, but I have a clear advantage in the long run. The randomness of this game is fair, but the long-term chances aren’t.
Slots are similar, just much more complicated. The math of a slot game is defined by:
Game math combined with fair random numbers gives the casino a long-term advantage over players. And that is how casinos make money.
Now that I have explained how fair slots really work, it is time to bust several popular myths about slots.
This is a myth, as slots really work based on fair random numbers. The advantage of the casino is hidden in the game math, and there is absolutely no need to complicate the entire system with any type of cycle.
In reality you may observe hot streaks and cold streaks. But that’s just a result of natural randomness and these streaks are absolutely not predictable.
This is a myth which probably comes from the days of standalone slots which paid out to the winning player directly. But it was as much of a myth then as it is now. If you won more money than the slot machine could pay out, you got the remainder from casino staff.
Modern slot machines are connected to a central server and all wins are paid out by casino staff, so there is no need to keep the amount of cash in a slot machine in mind. Random numbers work just fine and this myth is invalid.
Both of these myths make no sense to those who know how online slots work. The game math remains the same, and random numbers remain fair, whether you use the autoplay feature, the ledger or the spin button.
This is my favorite part as in the past, I have personally developed software solutions for a game provider. 🙂
Running a casino and creating good games requires different sets of skills. Moreover, players like to play the same games over and over. Those are probably the reasons why specialized companies which focus solely on creating casino games were established. It’s also the reason why you can play Starburst slot in so many casinos. NetEnt (the company which created Starburst) is an independent company.
There is one very important implication of this: if you are losing too much while playing a game from a reputable game provider, you can be quite sure that it’s just your bad luck. Even if you play your favorite game at an unknown casino, you are quite safe, in terms of game fairness (though you may be not safe in terms of actually getting your money – use our casino reviews to find a reputable casino that actually pays the money out, even when you win big). I’ve had gaming sessions with an RTP below 50% in the past.
And all this usually happens within less than 200 milliseconds :).
RTP and volatility are the 2 most important mathematical characteristics of a slot game. They basically influence how much and how often you win. However, it is a bit more complicated, so I will try to explain them to you.
RTP (Return to Player, also payout ratio or payout percentage) is the long-term statistical rate of the total money won divided by the total money staked. The phrase “long-term statistical rate” may sound complicated, so here is the more human-friendly explanation:
If a game RTP is 96%, it means that if you start with $1,000,000,000 and then play 1,000,000,000 rounds at $1 each, then you should end up with approximately $960,000,000 dollars.
If you play just a few hundreds rounds, your current return may vary from 30% up to 1000%. But the more rounds you play, the more likely you’ll be closer to the statistical RTP of the slot game. That’s why I used such big numbers in the example above.
RTP is a very popular characteristic in online slots because it can be expressed as a single number. It is easy to compare, and the most of the popular game providers declare the RTP of each slot game. Then it’s easy to write articles like “Top 10 best paying slots”.
RTP can be used for various simplified calculations, like how much you can expect to lose from a bonus while rolling it over.
These simplified calculations are good to impress your friends while drinking beer. But for more serious calculations (like those which we did in our bonus hunting article), you’ll need to count volatility as well.
Volatility of slots is quite a complicated concept so I’ll start with an explanation of volatility in roulette:
The volatility of roulette can be easily expressed in numbers from 2 to 36, depending on what type of stake you take. Higher volatility means that your individual wins will be higher. However, you will win less often and you are more likely to lose your entire budget faster.
Volatility of a slot game can’t be expressed as a single number, as you can win thousands of different win amounts as a result of the many different winning combinations. I have found out that the most accurate way to present slot volatility is a chart like this:
This chart shows the share of total wins paid out as various multiples of the bet. For example, the chart above displays that 15% of total wins are paid out as individual wins with sizes ranging from 2x to 5x the bet, and 10% of total wins are paid out in higher individual wins from 200x to 500x the bet.
As volatility can’t be expressed as a single number, game providers usually only classify slot into either “low”, “medium”, or “high” volatility categories. These categories can’t be effectively compared, nor used in any calculations, but they can give you at least a basic idea about the volatility of the game you are about to play.
Finding the real slot volatility (in the form of the chart presented above) is a very difficult task. Basically, you have to reverse-engineer the reel set of a game and properly estimate probabilities of other special game features. Even for me, this is a task that would take a day or more (depending on the slot’s complexity).
Slot volatility can be roughly estimated from the paytable and the reel set. Look for the highest winning combination. What is the chance of hitting it? How much will you win?
I personally like high volatility games as you can win higher amounts, so you can have the same thrill with lower stakes. And lower stakes mean that you’ll statistically lose less. This effect can easily compensate for a slightly lower RTP.
For example, lotteries often have an RTP of 50%, but the chances of winning the jackpot and becoming a multimillionaire keeps the masses playing it. Even my mom sometimes buys a lottery ticket and imagines what she would do if she won. And she would never, ever throw a single cent into a slot machine.
When not taking into account the lottery, slots are the most volatile type of game you can play in a casino. The advantage of high volatility can beat the high RTP of games like Blackjack or Roulette. To learn more about volatility and RTP and how they influence your chances to win, read this article.
Here are some tricks you can use if you wish to increase slot volatility:
These are basic tips that can help you. However, if you really want to know how to get the most out of playing slots, read the following article.
Have you ever stumbled upon a scam website presenting a secret slot strategy which will make you a lot of money? Don’t expect anything like that in this article. Slots can’t be defeated in the long run.
Although slots are theoretically unbeatable, there were some cases of players able to legally or illegally take advantage of their weaknesses and make money. You can read more about them in my article How to beat slots.
Really useful slot strategies are actually about finding the balance among following factors:
Every player looks for something else, so there is no ideal strategy that fits everyone. I will show you my strategies, each suitable for a different kind of players. Finding out which of them fits you best is up to you.
You’ll more likely understand how my strategies work when you have already understood the concepts of slots RTP and variance.
At first glance it seems online slot machines are a 100% game of chance. And they really are, at least in the terms of a single game round. However, that doesn’t mean that you can’t influence your chances by using the right betting strategy and choosing the right game to play.
In the rest of this article I’ll teach you how to use the choices above to play slots more effectively.
While slot RTP and volatility apply to a single game round, the RTP and volatility of betting strategy apply to the whole game session or casino visit. The following article describes in detail what I mean by a betting strategy.
All casino games, including slots, are disadvantageous for a player. Their RTP is lower than 100 % and they favor the casino. That means that you need luck to win, which is exactly why higher volatility is generally better for you.
Let me explain… In low-volatility games, the results over time tend to stay closer to the expected return, which is lower than 100 %. On the contrary, in high-volatility games, you are still losing money in the long run, however, you have a chance to win a big sum of money, thanks to the high volatility.
From a different perspective, you can win the same amount of money while placing smaller bets. If you place smaller bets with higher volatility, you will lose less in the long run, while also maintaining a chance to win big.
That’s why the majority of my slot tricks and strategies are based on increasing volatility, while also considering the game’s RTP.
The majority of online slots have the same RTP for all kinds of bets. However, some slots derived from land-based slot games add significant disadvantage to certain bets. In this case you should always choose the bet type without the disadvantage. I will use two examples to demonstrate this fact.
Bet on all 3 winlines costs 2 cents and bet on 1 winline costs 1 cent. It’s quite obvious that bet on 1 line has a huge disadvantage and its RTP will be extremely low. Therefore, it is always beneficial to choose the bet of 2 cents.An example of bets with different RTP: it’s clearly better to bet 2 coins, as this bet unlocks 3 winlines instead of just 1 for a 1-coin bet
Example 2: Full bets unlock bonus features that double your win on three joker symbols. The game without this feature probably won’t have very attractive RTP. So either choose another slot or play the full bet with highest RTP.
The double up feature (red/black) gives you the option to double your win with a 50% chance. In some games (like slots from Novomatic) you can do this multiple times in a row (13 I think).
This feature dramatically increases the volatility of the game. From a long-term perspective, you exchange a lot of smaller wins for proportionally fewer wins of higher value.
For example, without using the double up feature, you could win 40 times, winning $1 each time. However, if you used the double up feature up to 3 times, you could win 5 times, winning $8 each time. The long-term expected value is the same, but the individual wins are bigger.
If your goal is to win big, then double up feature is exactly what you need. It’s predictable and easy to simulate, I use it in some of my recommended slot strategies.
Note: Be careful about using the double up feature when playing with bonus money, as it might be forbidden by the bonus terms and conditions. This applies also when playing with free spins no deposit bonuses, where your choice is also limited by the game for which you’ve received the free spins.
Did you know that if you set the game to 1 winline instead of 10, you’ll most likely get 5 to 10 times higher game volatility?
When you bet $2 on one line, your average win will be much higher (and less frequent) as when you bet $0.20 on 10 lines. When you bet on 10 lines at the same time, the wins in the paytable are 10 times smaller. In most slots you usually hit a winning combination only on a small number of the 10 lines, so your average wins are also lower.
Note that this trick usually can’t be used by high rollers, as the maximum bet per line is usually restricted. But there are also slots which are an exception – like Cleopatra from IGT.
However, if you are a player who doesn’t bet more than $2 in a single round, this trick is a must-have.
The simple answer to this question is – you have to risk big to win big. However, if you want to win big with highest possible odds, you have to push the volatility of your strategy up to the sky.
Controversially, the most effective way to WIN BIG is to try to lose as fast as possible. That doesn’t make sense, does it? Let me explain.
Statistically (in the long run), you lose money with every bet you place. That is how the RTP works. To lose less in the long run, you have to minimize the total sum of your bets. To minimize the total sum of your bets, you have to try to lose your budget with as little betting as possible. If you do so and RTP remains the same, the principles of statistics reward you with a better chance for a big win.
Now for my favorite part of the Casino.guru website. Slot math is really my passion and some of the strategies below were invented by me independently from strategies published on other websites. I tested each of them with my own simulation software using reverse-engineered slot games. Any sharing is appreciated :).
Smart Gambler is my favorite slot betting strategy. I derived the name from the “gamble button” that gives you chance to double your win with a 50 % chance.
You spin with very small bets. When you hit a winning combination, you start doubling up the win using the gamble button. You keep doubling up until you either miss and lose, or until you win that high amount that you can happily withdraw and leave.
The Smart Gambler strategy is almost ideal. It has very high RTP, while it also allows you to choose the size of win and how long you will be able to play with your budget.
Now you probably wonder, how this strategy is doing in terms of betting system RTP.
Here’s the explanation. You only do two types of bet. The initial spin costs you statistically 100 % minus the RTP of the game. If a game’s RTP is 96 %, it means that the initial spin will cost you only:
That’s just $4 for a one-hour-long gaming session with a $100 budget and a $0.10 initial bet. The double up bet has a win probability of 50 % which gives it a 100 % RTP. In other words, the double up bet costs you nothing in the long run. Therefore,
“The RTP of my Smart Gambler betting system is (in an ideal scenario) equal to RTP of the selected slot game.”
The following tables show the results of a million player simulations using my Smart Gambler strategy. The simulation was completed on a slot with 96 % RTP. The variables were the desired win and the maximum number of allowed double ups.
If the win was lower than expected, then the whole win was placed on roulette. A budget of $100 with a $0.10 initial bet gives you 1000 rounds – around 60 to 90 minutes of playing.
Simulations prove that RTP of this betting strategy is very high. RTP increases with higher number of allowed double ups, as no additional roulette bets are required. For unlimited number of double-ups, the RTP is equal to the game’s RTP (small differences in measured RTP occur due to extreme volatility in this strategy).
Simulations show the Smart Gambler strategy keeps fair chances even when aiming for a giant win (500x the entire budget). However, the chances of such a big win are proportionally low. Be very careful and don’t fall in to the “I’ll once win my money back” loop. A healthy target is something around 5x-20x your daily budget.
For all the reasons mentioned I consider this to be THE BEST SLOTS STRATEGY (apart from not playing at all).
This is the craziest and the most volatile strategy I could figure out amongst all casino games. It’s similar to betting “All in” on a number in roulette… just MORE volatile.
Some slots made by IGT allow you to make a huge bet on a single winline. If you first decrease the number of winlines to one, then the game allows you to increase the bet on that line up to the total maximum allowed bet. In some slots this can be up to $100.
$100 Bet on a single winline in Diamond Queen slot
With a $100 bet on a single line at Diamond Queen slot, your potential wins range from $500 to $100k.
As a result, you either lose everything in just a few spins or win an amount in the range from nice to legendary.
You remember, right? The less you bet in total, the higher is the RTP of your betting strategy. That’s how this strategy works. If you go all in and leave with a win, then the RTP of your betting strategy equals to the RTP of the game. In the case of Diamond Queen, it’s (according to the game’s paytable) between 92.97% and 96.08%. In case of Cleopatra, it’s around 95%.
So your one-spin “session” would statistically cost you only $5-$7 (in the long run). The rest would be eventually paid out to winners who use the same strategy.Moonshot slot strategy: a big bet on a single winline – high risk, high possible reward
I have found three slots which support this feature: Diamond Queen, Wolf Run and Cleopatra. Cleopatra offers the highest possible win – 10 000 times the bet. However, I would choose Diamond Queen, as it seems more balanced.
If you were crazy enough to try this strategy and then managed to hit it big, please let me know. I’ll share your story.
P.S.: I plan to reverse engineer Diamond Queen and calculate the chances for different win sizes.
Reverse Martingale is a good betting strategy if your favorite slot doesn’t have a double-up feature. Do you know the roulette betting strategy called Martingale? Reverse Martingale does the opposite.
Martingale betting strategy (actually doesn’t work) suggests you to double up your bet after each loss. The idea is that once you have to win and then you’ll win back all your former bets. In reality, your bets grow exponentially and you risk your whole available bankroll in order to win just the initial bet. If you keep using the Martingale strategy, you’ll go bankrupt eventually.
The main idea of Reverse Martingale is to play for small initial bets and bet the entire win in the next round until you win big enough. This strategy is similar to the Smart Gambler strategy, but it uses increased bets instead of the double up feature.An reverse martingale slot strategy: reinvest your winnings from previous spins
You start with $100 and bet an initial bet of $0.10. After 15 rounds lost, you suddenly win $4.41. The next round you bet the closest possible amount to your win – in this case $4.40. If you lose, then you continue with the initial bet. If you win again – for example $35, then continue with a $35 spin. If you lose, you get back to betting $0.10 each round. Repeat this until you win a satisfying amount or lose your entire budget.
If your win exceeds the maximum bet in the slot which you are currently playing, start placing the maximum bets. Be careful to not spend more than you have won in the previous round. Otherwise you’ll lose big part of your budget and significantly shorten your time of play.
The Reverse Martingale has slightly lower volatility and lower overall RTP than Smart Gambler, but its advantage is that you can use any slot that you like, even if it doesn’t have the gamble feature.
You can use any slot you like with the Reverse Martingale strategy, unlike with the two aforementioned strategies.
Also, the time of play is predictable and you can easily estimate it from the initial bet and your budget.
The win amount is less predictable than with the Smart Gambler strategy, but more predictable than the Casual Player strategy or the Moonshot strategy.
Reverse martingale strategy doesn’t work that well for high rollers, as they’ll hit the maximum bet of a slot quite often.
The following tables show the results of a million player simulation using the Reverse Martingale strategy. I made the simulations on a 96 % RTP medium variance slot with a $50 maximum bet per round. Each simulation was a session of 1000 rounds with basic bet + additional rounds, so players either lost the entire budget or won a satisfying amount.
I was experimenting with various parameters for the initial bet (budget) and satisfying wins.
The simulations above illustrate how effective this strategy is when playing with a smaller initial budget. They also illustrate how it becomes ineffective when initial bet gets closer to the slot’s maximum bet.
Your chance to win 10x your budget is 4.4% with $100 budget and $0.10 basic bet. With $5000 budget and 5$ bet (same proportion) this chance drops to 1.22% and for $10 000/$10 drops even further to 0.124%. Out of one million high rollers who started with $10 000 and played with $10 initial bet, none of them managed to get over $500 000.
The Reverse Martingale strategy works properly only if the maximum bet is at least 100x-200x higher than the basic bet. That’s true for the majority of casual players.True high rollers who desire high RTP and extreme wins should look for a different strategy.
Note that for budgets and basic bets with which this strategy actually works, the average number of rounds played is around 1300. That’s 1.3x more than rounds played with initial bets. This explains the 1.3 coefficient in time of play formula above.
The strategy which I call “Casual player” is one of the simplest strategies you can use. You start spinning with a certain bet size and keep spinning with same bet until you lose everything, win enough or decide to stop after certain amount of time.
This strategy is used by many casino players. I have decided to analyze it mainly to illustrate how ineffective it is compared to my strategies.
Let’s start by defining “The casual player”. I know that many players change the bet size according to their intuition or increase the bet when they are on a lucky streak, but for the sake of simplicity, I’ll keep the bet the same during the entire simulation.
For each setup I simulated one million players with the same 96% RTP medium variance slot. Normal gaming session may take 1-2 hours, so I have decided to fix (D) to 1500 rounds (number of rounds after which player leaves regardless of his current bankroll). Then I have experimented with a $100 budget.
Note: Most slots work in a way that a win is always proportional to the bet. So the simulation using a $1 bet, $100 budget and $500 desired win will return the same results as the one with $10 bet, $1000 budget and $5000 desired win. Therefore, I made all the simulations with a $100 budget and I changed only the bet and the satisfying win.
Here are the tables with simulations for $100 budget and max. 1500 rounds. There are 3 tables with satisfying wins of $200, $1000 and $5000 respectively.
The problem is that at the same time you can have only two of those things.
The play time with constant bet strategy is unpredictable. The average play time value might look good at first glance, but in reality it’s highly biased because of the lucky players who managed to play until the end. Following chart illustrates that for $2/spin and a $1000 satisfying win setup.
% of players finished within certain number of rounds, $100 budget, $2 per spin
You can clearly see that 55% of players ran out of their respective budgets within the first 300 rounds. The chance that you’ll lose your budget sooner than you intended is very high. This increases the risk of exceeding your budget, which is one of the signals of pathological gamblers.
The analyzed setup with $2 bets is the one with the most balanced time of play. The setup with a bet of $5 per spin is even more unbalanced with 80% of players losing their budgets within the first 200 rounds.
% of players finished within certain number of rounds, $100 budget, $5 per spin
While unpredictable play time may be considered as clear negative, the unpredictable win size may increase the fun. Following plot displays the distribution of net wins/losses in my million player simulation.
Distribution of net win/loss in $2 spin, $100 budget, $1000 satisfying win
I have intentionally omitted players who lost everything because there would be a huge spike at the beginning of the chart. The distribution reminds me of a “Gauss curve”. The spike at $1000 value reminds how important is to know when to stop.
My next chart illustrates the distribution of wins/losses without the satisfying win rule.
Distribution of net win/loss in $2 spin, $100 budget, without satisfying win
This chart resembles “Gauss curve” even more. The “know when to stop” spike is flattened.
The constant bet strategy is the simplest betting strategy there is. You can achieve different results by choosing a different bet size, but you’ll never have good results like with the Smart Gambler strategy or the Reverse Martingale strategy. The biggest difference is in the time of play. With constant bet, the time of play is quite short and unpredictable.
I can recommend Casual Player strategy only to those players who wish to kill time with low bets, low losses and even lower wins. In that case, I recommend placing one thousandth of your evening budget per spin.
The optimal strategy of playing slots is surprisingly the simplest one. Don’t play them at all. I can call this “My mum’s strategy”, because I knew that if I asked her which strategy she would use to play slots, she would tell me “I wouldn’t play slots at all”. So I have asked her and she really gave me this answer.My mom’s strategy: the way to lose the least amount money on slots is to never play them
Mathematically, she is right. This is the only strategy with a 100% RTP. I made a computer simulation of million players who went to the casino and haven’t played slots. The simulation confirmed that none of the players lost anything so the theoretical RTP of this strategy is really 100%.
The disadvantage of My mum’s strategy is absolutely no thrill factor as obviously you can’t win anything. Also, zero time of play may be problem in some brick and mortar casinos or gaming venues which require you to play once you are in. The solution for this might be to find some other excitement in your life. Money spared on gambling give you countless options ;).
Properly designed slots which work with true Random Number Generators are theoretically unbeatable. But in reality, there are many documented cases of players who managed to trick slots into paying them out much more than the casino owners’ had hoped.
Many of these tricks are blatant theft. These usually include tools to manipulate a slot machine’s hardware, namely its coin dispenser or note acceptor. Some cases involved a casino insider who helped to manipulate the slot machine.
In another group of cases, players were just unusually lucky. They managed to find a software glitch and used it in their favor.
However, by far the most interesting case is the story from the very recent past (2009-2018) of a Russian guy from St. Petersburg, who managed to successfully predict the spin outcome on certain models of slot machines and used this to his advantage to milk millions from casinos around the world.
This story is so mind-blowing that I have decided to spend some time with it, and delve in for a deeper analysis of the techniques he used.
The credit for publishing the details about this story goes to wired.com and Brendan Koerner .
Alex was working as a freelance programmer and hacker when a Russian casino hired him to manipulate the RTP of some Novomatic slot machines. To do the job, Alex had to learn in detail about how these machines work internally. He also learned about PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generators), how they work and how they are used in slot machines. The breakthrough happened when he had spotted that slot machines were using an insecure PRNG algorithm that might be predictable.
The true RNG uses electromagnetic noise to generate completely random and completely unpredictable values. The PRNG works in a different way. It starts with a predefined value and then mashes it with some other inputs to generate an infinite series of values. The output values of PRNG seem completely random and impossible to predict at first glance. However, if the PRNG uses a weak algorithm and you know exactly which one, then you may be able to predict the next random number.
If the PRNG uses a weak algorithm and you know exactly which one, you may be able to predict the next random number.
Alex had apparently noticed that the algorithms used by some slot machines were weak, and decided to use this to his advantage.
Over the next few years, he managed to lay the groundwork, preparing for what would become a much more sophisticated operation:
Note: Alex’s system wouldn’t work in modern online casinos and games, like those which you can find in our list of free slots, because they use true RNG systems to generate results which really are random.Alex from Russia, who managed to find a clever way to beat slots
The technique he developed doesn’t include any prohibited manipulations of slot machines. That’s in huge contrast with many theft techniques described later in this article, which fool slot machine hardware to dispense more money than intended. Alex’s strategy is based on pure math from his own observations, and thus can be considered a valid and clean “how to beat slots” strategy.
Many gambling experts (including me) consider Alex’s actions to be entirely clean and morally acceptable. I would compare it to card counting in blackjack, bonus hunting or advantage betting. Casinos are putting these slot machines on the floor voluntarily, and it’s their problem if someone smart can predict the outcomes and take an advantage of that.
This strategy wasn’t technically illegal in many jurisdictions. So even if casino security guards managed to catch one of his agents, they only confiscated his winnings and banned him from further access to the casino.
But casinos (especially land based) are huge companies with a lot of money, and strong connections to the local authorities. When casinos spotted that there was an organized group using their slot machines as ATMs, they no doubt pulled some strings. Authorities and casino lawyers eventually managed to find a crime which corresponds to what this group was doing. Namely, “conspiracy to commit fraud”. This resulted in the arrest of 4 of Alex’s agents in Missouri in 2015 (who were later charged and sentenced to 2 years in federal prison) .
That was the breaking point of the story, and some agents started to talk more openly about the details of their milking system. The group had very likely become known to most casino security officers around the world, and another arrest followed in Singapore .
Alex, recognizing that was becoming too risky for his agents to continue using this system, decided to make last attempt to use his know-how to make money. He contacted Aristocrat – the manufacturer of the slot machines he managed to compromise – directly. Hoping for an 8-digit reward, he offered his services in improving the PRNG algorithms and fixing all of the security issues. At the same time he threatened that if Aristocrat didn’t accept his offer, he would sell this sensitive information to their competitors. However, Aristocrat has refused to play his game, despite the fact that he has provided them with all the mathematical details about their vulnerability.
When Aristocrat refused Alex’s offer, he decided to give it one more chance, and push a little further by publishing the details of his story. He contacted Brendan Koerner – a man who had already covered known facts about his story in this article.
Brendan agreed to continue with the story, and published another article with a lot of new details directly from Alex. If that hadn’t happened, you wouldn’t be reading about them in my article.
In any case, for me, this is the biggest gambling story of the 21st century. I definitely look forward to the next chapter and also for the movie. I hope that Hollywood will do it justice. Popcorn prepared.
There is quite a lot of evidence that Alex has managed to successfully apply his strategy on an outdated Aristocrat MK IV slot machine. Aristocrat itself recommends their customers now replace these machines. Despite that, there are still thousands of these machines in many casinos around the world. However, most casinos shouldn’t have any problem replacing them when necessary.
Alex claims (and there are some signals supporting his claim ) that in 2009, he started to decipher the PRNGs of some older Novomatic cabinets. However, it is very likely that Novomatic managed to remove this vulnerability with a security update in 2011. Maybe this Novomatic patent for System and Method of Centralized Random Number Generator Processing from 2013 also had something to do with that.
He also claims that he managed to do the same with some machines made by Atronic.
By far the strongest claim from Alex is that he found a similar vulnerability for the Aristocrat Helix cabinet. Helix is one of their current models, so if Alex wasn’t bluffing, then Aristocrat may have an even bigger problem – especially if it is not possible to fix with a security update or minor chip replacement. But on the other hand, Aristocrat is a huge company with $2 billion annual revenues and $500 million yearly profit. So they will very likely survive it (with major internal HW replacement and damage to their reputation, in the worst case scenario).
Anyway, don’t expect too much fun. Even if Alex decides to publish more details about his algorithms, casinos will very likely turn off all affected slot machines before ordinary people have a chance to use this to their own advantage.
If you want to have fun, get your own Aristocrat cabinet and do your own reverse-engineering. I bet that with one of my friends who is a specialist in microelectronics we would be able to do it if we wanted to. 😉
There is a lot of indirect evidence that the story as described by Alex is true. Authorities wouldn’t have arrested and sentenced his agents in 2 countries if it wasn’t true. Novomatic wouldn’t have investigated slot machine manipulation, and wouldn’t have released security updates if it wasn’t true.
But don’t slot manufacturers have dedicated security specialists? How could these huge companies overlook such a vulnerability?
I have worked as a software developer for 10 years and I can say that security threats can easily be overlooked. This is even more likely for new and unknown types of attacks like this one. Even if there was some security manager in charge at the time, he was trained to mitigate only the threats that were known to him at the time (monkey paw etc.). If the development team didn’t have a true expert on board who would be able to predict new vulnerabilities and raise his hand, then this PRNG threat could have been easily overlooked.
The regulators only required PRNG to generate a uniform distribution of generated numbers. This is what even simple PRNGs do. The unpredictability (cryptographic security) doesn’t have to be tested at all.
The PRNG concept sounds like something alien to most “business people”. They only care about a few things. They are satisfied when a slot machine:
Also, the software in slot machines often survives several generations of cabinets with just minor updates. And why change something that has worked without problems for the last 15 years, right? Therefore, it is quite possible that even many modern machines use parts of code from the early 90’s.
That’s why I took all the published details and decided to demonstrate how reverse engineering can be used to predict the future outcomes of a PRNG slot. Check out my technical analysis at the end of the article.
As I previously stated, I believe that Alex’s system was morally acceptable and even legal in some jurisdictions. However, not all ways that have been previously used to “beat” slots are like that. There are numerous illegal ways in which slots have been cheated in the past.
Most of the recorded slot machine frauds have something to do with hardware manipulation and/or special tools used to “fool” the slot machine and make money.
It’s important to point out that hardware manipulations and the usage of any tools to change the way slot machines work are illegal. That means that you might as well take an axe and smash the cabinet to get to the money storage area. From a legal standpoint, you would be doing pretty much the same thing.
Some of them occurred repeatedly, while others were a one-time operation. What all of them have in common is the fact that they only work with the physical slot machines you can find in land based casinos. Online casinos are protected, as players need to be physically near a slot machine to manipulate it.
Also, as casinos were being continuously defrauded, they started to implement further security measures and hardware updates that have made most of the frauds I will talk about impossible to pull off today.
Okay, let’s get to it. Here are some of the ways slot machines have been cheated in the past.
The first slot fraud I will mention is very simple. It includes fake coins or anything else slot machines register as a form of payment. If you are able to manufacture something that the machine “thinks” is a coin, you can use it to make money.
Of course, you must be able to manufacture the coins for less than their nominal value. Otherwise, you wouldn’t be very profitable.
There is one famous example of a man who managed to use this technique very successfully. Louis Colavecchio is an American casino counterfeiter also known as “The Coin“. He and his gang managed to fabricate considerable amounts of fake coins and casino tokens and use them to make money in the casinos of Atlantic City and Connecticut. He was caught and later became quite famous, thanks to The History Channel, which made a documentary about him.
If you ever played with a Yo-Yo, you know that it goes down and up when handled correctly. And that’s exactly what a coin on a string does. First, it’s inserted into the slot machine and allowed to go far enough for the machine to register it and start a game. Then it is pulled back out and used again and again.
This technique is very similar to fake coins, but it eliminates the need for large-scale fake coin production. With a coin on a string, pretty much everybody could try to defraud a casino. Of course, not everyone did, and not everyone who did was successful.An easy way that was used to beat slots in the past: a coin on a string
The technology used to judge the coins’ validity kept getting better and better, which made tricks like fake coins obsolete, or at least much harder to pull off. Slot machines started using a light sensor to register payments and figure out whether the coins were fake or real.
A shaved coin was registered as a valid form of payment, but fell through the physical comparator that was used to measure the size of the entering coins. The coin was therefore returned to the player and ready to be used again.
If the slot machine required the coin to match the size requirements, another object was inserted into the machine with the shaved coin itself. This object matched the size of the coin perfectly and stayed in the machine, while the shaved coin “fooled” the optical sensor and fell out of it.
The previously described ways to beat slots had something to do with how money was inserted into the machine. The next slot cheat, as well as a lot of the following ones, are different. They affect the ways slots pay out money, more specifically coins.
You have to think about the old type of slots that just paid out coins directly every time a player won something. They had a mechanical coin counter which was used to count the coins exiting the machine to pay out just as much as the player had won.
In this cheat, a coat hanger (or something similar in shape and form) was pushed into the area alongside the coin counter, which affected its precision. That meant that the slot kept paying out more than it was supposed to, which made playing more profitable in the long run.
A top-bottom joint was a tool that consisted of two parts… you guessed it – the top and the bottom, more specifically a metal rod bent to form a circle (the top) and a long guitar string or some other thin wire (the bottom).
The top-bottom joint is one of the most well-known tools used to defraud casinos. It was very popular in the 70s and 80s. It took the term “emptying out a slot machine” to an entirely new level.
The bottom part was inserted into the bottom of the machine, where it came into contact with the machine’s internal electrics, drawing a small charge from it. The top part was then inserted into the coin slot, which completed the circuit and forced the machine to pay out all the coins it had inside.
Monkey paw was created by a legend of the art of cheating slot machines and casinos – Tommy Glenn Carmichael. But to get to the monkey paw, we first have to go back to the top-bottom joint. Carmichael owned a TV repair shop that wasn’t doing very well. So, when his friend Ray Ming introduced the top-bottom joint to him, he decided to try it out.
He had some success with it, but was later caught and sentenced to 5 years in prison, not only because of his cheating, but also because of his previous convictions. Then he realized that the tool he had been using (the top-bottom joint) was already pretty well-known. He realized he had to figure out something new to succeed in the field of defrauding casinos.
That’s why he invented the monkey paw. He got himself a video poker machine and began experimenting. Carmichael managed to create a very simple yet functioning contraption. He attached a metal string to a bent metal rod, which he later inserted into a slot machine’s vent and moved it around until he found the switch for the machine’s coin hopper. He pulled it and got everything that was inside the machine.
As slot machines became more technologically advanced and secure, they stopped using mechanical systems to count money. They started using optical sensors, which made the majority of the aforementioned cheats obsolete. But Carmichael adapted to the change, and figured out a way to fool the new systems.
He made a small device that could “blind” the optical sensor, making it unable to detect how much money was inserted into the machine and how much was being paid out. Since the machine thought the correct amount hadn’t been paid out yet, it kept paying out more and more money, making the cheaters richer and richer.
The piano wire method of cheating slots has nothing to do with inserting or paying out money. The piano wire was used to change the outcome of the game, which makes it a very unique form of cheating.
It dates back to 1982, when slot machine reels were still mechanically operated. The piano wire was inserted into the slot machine’s rotating insides. The wire was used to jam the clock used to measure the wheel rotation, which meant that players could manipulate the spin’s outcome.
The group of people who tried to pull this operation off managed to hit a $50,000 win. However, they were being filmed during the entire process, and were arrested later on. Their success was short-lived, but they really managed to change the outcome of the game using only a piano wire.
Dennis Nikrasch managed to do things differently. He also bought a slot machine to “play” with at home. He figured out that the machine’s chip could have been reprogrammed to manipulate the outcome of the game. The reprogrammed chips could then have been installed into the casinos’ slot machines and used to make a lot of money.
And he didn’t keep this information to himself. He ordered a load of these chips, reprogrammed them, got his hands on slot machine keys and replaced their chips. And “just” like that, he managed to run a successful operation that made him rich. He was, of course, later arrested in 2004, and died in 2010.
Although this way of beating slots is not technically a cheat or a fraud, I decided to make it a part of this article. Slots are programmed by people. And people make mistakes. A programming mistake can lead to a software glitch that can later (knowingly or unknowingly) be exploited by players.A slot machine software glitch
And I could keep going. The point is that huge wins that happen due to a software glitch are pretty much never paid out. And what’s even worse, some shady casinos might actually be using this to not pay out real wins by blaming them on a glitch.
However, a software glitch doesn’t always have to result in hitting a jackpot. It might instead provide a player with a stream of smaller wins, or misinterpret the money inserted into the machine in a way that favors the player. Instances of this kind can stay under the radar, and can be exploited by crafty players.
You have to be extremely lucky to find this type of bug though. And even if you managed to do it, you can never be sure that you will actually get to see the money.
But remember, fortune favors the prepared mind. 🙂
Disclaimer: the following technical analysis is just my speculation as to what engineers at Aristocrat could have done wrong, and how Alex could have exploited it. Despite the fact that I took all information available at the time into account, the real exploit could have differed in minor or major details.
The simplest PRNG algorithm described in The Art of Computer Programming which gives satisfactory results is actually quite simple:
This algorithm, known as Linear Congruential Generator (LCG), is still used as a default PRNG algorithm in many programming languages (e.g. Java).
Could Aristocrat slot machine developers simply have used the default PRNG algorithm provided by the programming language they used? Or could they have used the simplest PRNG which meets the requirement of uniformity?
I think that it’s possible scenario. This default algorithm works and meets the criteria of uniformity of generated random numbers. It might have met all the criteria programmers were working to in the requirements specification.
Now let’s speculate on how bold Alex could have exploited this algorithm.
The first step is to get to know the exact parameters of the algorithm (parameters a, c and m). This is the easy part, as these parameters are written in every slot machine. Alex just had to read the binary code from the cabinet memory and decompile it. This is a task which any specialist in microelectronics can do if he is equipped with the proper tools.
But knowing just the a, c and m parameters alone isn’t enough. With the decompilation, you can actually read the parameters of all PRNG algorithms – even the cryptographically secure ones. To be able to predict and exploit the RNG sequence in a real slot machine placed in a casino, you’ll also need to know something else – the current RNG seed value.
The LCG PRNG algorithm is generally characterized as easily predictable. This means that just by knowing 3 random numbers you are able to calculate a, c, m parameters and easily predict the next numbers in the sequence.
Don’t be confused with that, as this wasn’t the exact task Alex was facing. Alex already knew a, c, and m parameters from the decompilation, but he didn’t know the current RNG state value. He was able to observe the produced random numbers indirectly by watching the positions where the reels stopped in recorded spins.
The key point is that logic of a slot game is deterministic and programmed inside the cabinet. So it can be decompiled, reverse-engineered and simulated somewhere else. The game logic usually takes a random number and uses some mathematical operations to determine where each reel should stop.
The slot machine reels usually have around 50 to 100 symbols, three of which are displayed on the screen. The combinations may sometimes repeat, and reels can have a different length, but let’s assume that there are 50 unique combinations on each reel. The random number selects one of these 50 combinations, so just by looking at the first reel in the first spin you can eliminate 49/50 (98%) of potential random numbers.
If the game has 5 reels, then on average just one of 312 million random numbers gives the exactly the same result as the one observed by a player.
If you know the outcome of many consecutive random (*) numbers, then you’ll very soon end up with just 1 initial random number which gives the desired outcome for all spins. In fact, the number of spins you need is proportional to the length of the initial random number.
So you just need to simulate all the possible random numbers and voilà… well, not that fast.
If a slot machine used random numbers which are 64 bits long, then simulating all of them would require too much computational power (544 years on my laptop). Alex still needed to get a little unintentional help from Aristocrat’s developers. I found 2 things they could have done to help Alex:
Aristocrat MK IV cabinets were developed on a 32-bit ARM 250 processor. If the slot developers decided to also use a 32-bit random number seed, then there are just 4,294,967,296 possible RNG states. It may look like a lot, but current computers are very fast and this number of options can easily be examined by brute force (takes 4 seconds on my laptop).
However, I consider this option less likely. Moreover, a 32-bit random number is too short to cover all possible results in some games (5 reels * 90 symbols).
Let’s now assume that there was a 64-bit RNG state in use. How do you use a 64-bit number to deterministically stop 5 reels by 50 symbols each? The easiest approach which preserves uniformity would be the following:
Each reel now uses its part of a random number, and there are no correlations among the individual reels. Provided the random numbers are uniform, then there is a uniform chance of any possible game outcome (**). Regulator approves.
If you know the reel positions, you can easily calculate the end of a random number (RND mod 50^5):
RndEnd = pos1 + pos2*50 + pos3*50*50 + pos4*50*50*50 + pos5*50*50*50*50
Will this help you to guess the current RNG state? It will, actually. It will help you a lot.
Now you don’t need to simulate all possible random numbers, but just those that end in RndEnd. Or, to be more specific, all random numbers which match the pattern RndEnd + X * 50^5:
Now out of 2^64 possible values (18466744073709551616), you’ll need to try just 59029581035. Both are huge amounts of possible values, but while on my laptop the simulation of the first would take 544 years, the simulation of second would be completed in 60 seconds. That’s a huge difference.
And that’s it. Now you know the random number and you can predict future spins.
The real RNG exploit Alex used could be different, but I bet it has a lot of common with the process I have described here.
(*) In reality Alex didn’t know the outcomes of consecutive random numbers, but he knew the outcomes of random numbers which were quite close in the sequence.
Alex’s agents had to wait for certain moment to press the spin button. This indicates that Aristocrat MK IV cabinet continuously generates random numbers with some frequency (in some jurisdictions it’s a legislative requirement). When a player presses the spin button, the current random number is used to determine the spin outcome.
Note that the frequency of generating random numbers must be also programmed inside a slot machine. Therefore, it can also be easily read and predicted after code decompilation.
Let’s assume that the random numbers in a slot machine are generated with a frequency of 100/second. Playing 24 rounds might take around 60 seconds, so there are about 6000 random numbers involved, out of which 24 have been used to calculate the spin outcome. The task then is to calculate the first random number which gives the outcome of the first spin, and also the outcomes of the remaining 23 spins when cycled further within the following 6000 cycles. This simulation is also easy to do; it just takes a few times more (with proper optimizations).
(**) To get perfect uniformity, you would have to throw away numbers which are greater than 2^64 – 2^64 mod (50^5).
Blackjack is an interesting and exciting game, that comes in several types, that slightly change the way it’s played and are worth learning about.
It is a card game with simple rules, that evolved from the game that was known as “twenty-one”, which probably originated in the 17th century. The first written reference comes from the stories of Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. In France, blackjack was known as “twenty-one” or “Vingt-et-un” and was played in French casinos in the 18th century where it became very popular.
The name “blackjack” was derived from the special bonus that a player obtained after receiving a combination of an ace of spades and a black jack. This aspect of the game has over the years become obsolete and is no longer part of the rules, but the game has retained its name.
It is up to the player’s ability in strategy and decision making that determines whether he wins or loses, which is why it’s extremely important to know how blackjack is played. The advantage of the casino can be reduced depending on the player’s ability to play the game optimally. This is the reason why the game is so popular amongst strategically-minded people.
For many players, blackjack has become a lifelong passion, which is proved by the existence of a large number of books and various strategies.
If you want to play blackjack, I suggest you try the game with a real dealer. Not only will you play with real cards, but the game will be a more pleasant experience if the cards are dealt by an a real dealer, whether it’s online or in a brick-and-mortar casino. However, your time for making decisions in this type of blackjack is limited. That is why we do not recommend trying it until you have mastered at least the basic strategy.
When playing tournament blackjack you can also compare your skills with other players. Furthermore, applying advanced strategies can lead to obtaining a long-term advantage over the casino, but do not expect blackjack to make you rich. Enjoy it as a way of entertainment which can keep you amused longer than most other casino games.
Also, if you want to try out card counting in free blackjack games, you can practice how the strategy is used, but you will not be able to get the advantage to your side, because the virtual deck is shuffled after each game round. To be able to see results, you need to play real-life games or at least live dealer blackjack, in which a number of game rounds are played with the same unshuffled deck. Online casinos suitable for blackjack players can be found for example on onlineblackjack.com.
Blackjack is most often played with six decks of French cards (the number of decks may vary from 1 to 8), with each deck consisting of 52 cards – from a two to an ace in four suits (including two black – spades and clubs and two red – hearts and diamonds).
Cards from 2 to 10 have their face value, the cards from jack to a king are worth 10 points and an ace is worth a variable value of 1 or 11. An ace has the ability to create so-called “soft” combinations, which practically means that, given an ace and 8, the total can be either 9 or 19. This is called “soft 19”. This value of the combination at the start of the hand counts as 19, but if a player draws another card and the sum exceeds 21, the value of the ace is reduced to 1.
The combination of an ace and a 7 is called “soft 18”. It has a value of 18, but if the player decided to get another card and got an eight, the value of the ace would automatically become 1, making the entire hand worth 16.
Blackjack is played against the dealer, with the player aiming to obtain a higher value hand than the dealer, but not exceeding the value of 21. If you exceed 21, the game is over regardless of the sum the dealer has reached. If the dealer exceeds the limit of 21, the player wins, but only if the player hasn’t exceeded the limit of 21 himself or herself.
The basic win in blackjack is in the ratio of 1:1. If the player gets a combination of an ace and a card worth 10, the player receives a reward for blackjack usually in the ratio of 3:2 (a bet of $1 wins $2.50, including the wagered $1).
There is also a rule that after reaching the sum of 17, the dealer does not draw another card. However, with soft 17 it’s not automatic. This rule may be applied differently, so the dealer might draw another card or stand on soft 17, depending on the specific rules used in that game. If you play online, the instructions and rules in play are always displayed. Usually the instruction says “Dealer stands at soft 17” and “Blackjack pays 3 to 2”.
If you happen to come across a type of blackjack, where the blackjack is rewarded at a ratio lower than 3:2 (mostly when playing with only one or two packs of cards), you should be aware that casino’s edge is much higher when this rule is applied.
Blackjack that is played in online casinos can be played in 2 different variants – video blackjack and live blackjack. The main difference is that video blackjack uses cards randomly generated by a computer. When playing against a real dealer, real cards are dealt and shuffled manually before being used in the game.
Blackjack has several different styles – American and European. In the American blackjack, the dealer draws 2 cards, one face up and one face down. If the face up card is an ace, the second card is checked by the dealer and revealed in case it has a value of 10 and completes a blackjack. If that’s not the case, the game continues and the face down card is shown to the player when it’s the dealer’s turn to draw another card or stand.
In European blackjack, the dealer receives only one card face up and draws only after the player has completed his hand.
There are many other variations of blackjack. These can differ by rules concerning the dealer and sometimes the player as well. However, in practice the rules are always set to favour the casino.
There are other variations of blackjack where you play basically two different games simultaneously – blackjack and something else at the same time
In a version of blackjack called Triple sevens you can win the accumulated jackpot if you get three sevens of diamonds. In Caribbean Blackjack, the winnings depend on what poker combinations you form with your cards. These side winnings can be obtained only after making a side bet, which is played separately from the bets placed in blackjack.
The basic strategy is described in the table below where the sum of player’s cards values points to a certain row. The value of the dealer’s face up card points to a certain column. The corresponding symbol in the table determines the optimal decision recommended by basic strategy. The table is divided into hard totals, soft totals and pairs. All possible moves the player can make are listed below:
The basic strategy described in the table is for American type of Blackjack with 4 or more decks. Dealer always stands on 17, doubling is possible after split and you can surrender against any card.
For the totals of 12 to 16, we draw a card only if we are betting against a dealer’s 7 or higher. The total of 12 is an exception and we draw a card against the dealer’s 2 or 3.
The worst face up cards for the dealer are the cards 5 and 6. In this case, the chance that his total exceeds the limit 21 is the highest. We can use this situation to our advantage by doubling the bet on soft combinations up to soft 18. The total sum of 18 is a relatively high, so it might seem risky to draw another card, but it’s the best move to make.
When dealing a pair of cards, we never split two 10s, we split two 9s only against a dealer’s 7, 10 or an ace. A pair of 8’s is always split with the exception of the European form of the game – in this case, we draw a card only against 10 or an ace. The pair we split the least is a pair of 4’s. This pair is split only if the dealer has a 5 or a 6.
If there is a possibility to surrender, we should do so only if our total is 16 and we are against dealer’s 9, 10 or an ace. Having the total of 15, we should surrender only against a dealer’s 10.
The bet is most commonly doubled when the total of our hand is 10 or 11. In this case, we should double unless we are against a dealer’s ten or an ace. In such cases, we should only hit. When the sum is 9, we should double the bet if we stand against a dealer’s 3, 4, 5 or 6.
As you can see the basic strategy consists of a set of simple rules. If you decide to play, you should have these rules with you. You can either open it on your phone or print on a crib sheet, or you can memorise it, which also isn’t that difficult.
To play the optimal game, it is always essential to check the rules of the particular game of blackjack you are playing. However, the differences in basic strategies for different rules are not that big. The easiest way to remember the strategy is to play and to repeat the correct moves until they become routine. For beginners, it is advisable to first play blackjack for free with virtual money, for example in our free games section.
The basic strategy is a tool that can be used to significantly reduce the casinos’ advantage in Blackjack. Martingale and other strategies of increasing bets do not guarantee you success. In many cases, you will lose your money faster than you would lose it betting the same bet size over and over again.
The only way to make a long term profit in blackjack is to utilize card counting.
When mastering the basic strategy, the house edge in the game is reduced to approximately 0.50%. The profitability of the casino is therefore much lower when compared for example to roulette or slots.
This is the reason why this game was so popular among the so called “bonus hunters”. Nowadays, bonus hunting in blackjack is impossible, as casinos have modified the wagering requirements for wagers from blackjack and similar games.
When mastering the basic strategy, the loss can be reduced but not to the point that it becomes profitable for you.
This is the reason why you will often get some basic strategy for blackjack in the form of a small card when entering a casino. Naturally, no casino would do this in order to make the players win, but it is a good marketing trick to attract more players. Even when the basic strategy is used, the mathematical advantage remains on the side of the casino.
This strategy has been the subject of many books, even a movie called “21” has been made about it. So, what is it all about?
Card counting is based on a simple principle: If the stack of cards used in the game has more high cards than low cards, your advantage over the casino increases.
In such case, you can even have a positive long term advantage over the casino. The advantage of the player can often reach 2% or more. On the contrary, if the cards are mainly of low values, the edge of the casino increases. When applying the strategy, you increase your bets when you have an advantage, and vice versa, when the advantage goes back to the casino’s side, you reduce your bets.
In the film mentioned above, players from one team were sitting at different tables. When the statistical advantage arose on any of the tables, another player from another table was given a secret signal to join the table and to place the highest bets. Naturally, all fun ended as soon as the team had been caught by the casino.
It is thus clear that the higher the total sum is, the higher your bet should be. At the same time, the total sum is divided by a multiple of the remaining card decks. Most commonly, blackjack is played with 6 to 8 decks of cards. If there are 4 packs remaining, you should divide your total sum by 4. By doing this division you will get a so-called “true count” indicating your current advantage or disadvantage. If the number of remaining decks to deal is lower while total positive sum remains the same, your advantage is higher.
Each point of true count reduces the house edge by approximately 0.5%. The player therefore has a significant advantage when the true count is 2 or higher.
It should also be noted that the basic strategy needs to be tweaked as counts of cards in the shoe change. For example, as I previously mentioned, if your total is 15 against the dealer’s 10, the basic strategy advises you to draw a card, but in case of a high number of high cards the strategy changes and now you are advised to stand.
There are other card-counting strategies differing from each other in the method of counting aces. This card plays quite an important role in this game (without an ace you cannot have blackjack and it is paid in the ratio 3:2).
Counting cards has no positive impact for a player when playing video blackjack, because all the cards are dealt randomly. This means that each game is played with a new virtual deck of cards. In live blackjack, in a real casino or in an online casino, it is to some extent possible to use card counting to gain an advantage over the casino.
It should however be noted that casinos are fighting back against card counting. Card counting is a legitimate method of winning over a casino, but when a player is discovered to be practicing this art, the casino has the right to stop the game and prohibit the player’s future entrance to the casino.
Casinos protect themselves by using other methods such as using a cut card. In practice this means that only half of the cards are dealt out of eight decks. The cut card is placed into the shoe indicating to the dealer that the game will be completed after the round in progress finishes and the cards will be freshly shuffled. This method significantly reduces the profitability of card counting, as the benefits of card counting are the highest towards the end of a shoe.
Counting cards also loses its meaning if the casino uses a CSM (continuous shuffling machine). CSM is a device for automatic shuffling of cards. Therefore, after the completion of each round, the used cards are shuffled immediately.
Shuffle tracking is a less popular and more demanding strategy to be managed and to be revealed by the casino. The strategy is based on your good eyesight and excellent memory. If you manage to remember which cards have been dealt and trace how they were shuffled, you can gain an advantage. The principle is simple – the player remembers groups of cards, assigns them a value and when a new game is opened, the player decides according to which cards follow.
The strategy can be used provided that the cards are not shuffled by an automatic device, but directly by the dealer. This is the case where human factor may fail and it can result in inconsistent shuffling of cards.
If you’ve been searching for the best roulette strategy online, you almost certainly have come across many websites that claim that their strategies are a surefire way to make money online. However, these strategies really don’t work. If you keep using them on a long-term basis, you will almost certainly lose your entire bankroll.
I use the term “scam roulette strategies” to describe these strategies. In fact, I’ve dedicated an entire article to scam roulette strategies. Read it now to find out which strategies I’m talking about and why they don’t work. Everything in this article is supported by simulations.
The strategies in this article are different. I am not saying they will help you turn roulette into a cash machine. That’s not possible, because the casino always has a statistical advantage over you when playing roulette. You statistically lose money with every bet you make, which is why any attempt to systematically win on roulette is not possible, with the exception of some of the cases described in my how to beat roulette article.
However, that doesn’t mean you can’t do your utmost to play roulette effectively, and have a realistic chance to win money and enjoy the game at the same time. Keep reading this article and discover the strategies I consider to be the best.
There is one thing I’d like to point out before we discuss the strategies themselves. If you’ve read some of the other articles on this website, you will already know how much I underline the importance of volatility (also known as variance). The game of roulette is quite simple and enables us to easily demonstrate why volatility matters.
I’ll start off by explaining what volatility (variance) is. This concept is used to describe how often you tend to win in a game of chance, and how big the individual wins are. You can read more about this concept in my article on RTP and variance, but generally it goes something like this:
The most volatile bet you can place on roulette is a bet on a single number (Straight up). It has a payout ratio of 36-times your bet and you statistically will only win once every 37 spins (on a single-zero roulette wheel). Actually, this isn’t that volatile. Slots, for example, can be much more volatile than this. In terms of roulette, however, this can be classified as “high volatility”, or at least the highest you can get for a single spin.
In terms of low volatility, the least volatile “standard” bets are known as even chance bets that pay 2-times your original bet and have an 18:37 chance of winning. These are bets placed on red/black, even/odd, high/low. Technically, you can achieve less volatility by covering a substantial part of roulette table with chips, but let’s stick with this bet for now as an example of low volatility.
As you may already know, the expected return to player (RTP) of any type of roulette bet is the same. The RTP of American roulette is 94.74%, whereas the RTP of European roulette is 97.3%. This means that you statistically get the same percentage of your money back, regardless of which type of bet you place.
In reality, all bets are not the same. In American roulette there is a bet called “Top line” that has an RTP of only 92.1%. But let’s ignore this for now to make it a bit simpler. And you wouldn’t place any chips on that bet anyway. If you want to know more about various types of bets, read my article about roulette rules, odds, bets and payouts.
This doesn’t mean, however, that you should simply place bets without thinking about them, because volatility really does matter. Let me explain further.
You must remember that the RTP of roulette is always less than 100%, which means that you are always statistically losing your money. If you place bets with low volatility, your results will stay close to the expected outcome, which is negative for you. However, when you place highly volatile bets, you have a higher chance to deviate from the negative expected results and actually end up winning some money, even though you are statistically still expected to lose.
This concept might be a bit difficult to grasp, but the charts below will hopefully help you to understand why high volatility is generally better for the player.
As you can see, all of the five players who placed low volatility bets stayed close to their starting bankroll and the expected negative return. Only one of them ended up winning any money, with the other four finishing with around 80% to 90% of their initial bankroll.
In terms of players placing high volatility bets, the results were much more interesting. One of them lost everything after 136 spins, and another came very close to going bankrupt, but one player was pretty much break-even, and two managed to win nice amounts. This demonstrates that in order to have a chance to win big, you pretty much need to increase the volatility.
I hope these charts, together with what I have written above, will make it clear why the best strategies in terms of expected value are generally the ones that consist of placing higher volatility bets.
There are many different ways of playing roulette, each of which have their advantages and disadvantages. Let’s take a look at these two examples:
Do you see what I’m getting at? Each player has different preferences. Some want to win a lot of money, some want to have an exciting game, while others just want to spend some time playing roulette. That’s why my strategies are about finding a balance between these factors:
Let me present you with some of the best roulette strategies I could come up with or find. Choose the one that’s best for you based on your personal preferences.
Keep in mind that these strategies are not miracle workers, however. They will not help you to win every time. They are designed to help you enjoy the game of roulette, while maximizing the aforementioned priorities. I just want to make this completely clear before I move on to the strategies themselves.
Note: I will go into the statistical details for each of the strategies, even though I appreciate that some of you don’t care too much about this topic. That’s why I will only provide basic information for these strategies, in addition to posting links to individual articles with more details and simulations. This will allow you to read the basics and skip the rest, but if you do happen to be interested in this topic, you will most likely enjoy discovering the details as well.
The Constant Bet roulette strategy is not very advanced. This is the “strategy” used by a majority of roulette players, often without even realizing it. As its name suggests, this strategy is about constantly placing the same bet. It also involves continuously betting a constant amount of money. Hence its name…
I decided to include this strategy as the “standard” way to play roulette, mostly so that I have something to compare the rest of the strategies to. It’s not an entirely bad strategy though. It all depends on what kind of bets you place, how big (or small) the bets are, how long you want to play, and/or how much money you would like to win.
A player walks into a casino with $100 in their pocket and then sits down at a roulette table. The minimum bet is $10 and they start betting $10 on black every single round. They want to have fun playing roulette for an hour or so, or double their bankroll and leave with a potential profit. This is a great example of the Constant bet strategy.
Based on your personal preferences, the Constant Bet roulette strategy could be the ideal option for you. It all depends on what you want to achieve:
These are just the basic details. I go into much more detail in the separate article covering the Constant Bet strategy. Feel free to click the link and peruse the article, but I advise you to read the basics of the other strategies first, so that you can get a full picture before getting into the specifics. I will add links to the separate articles later on as well.
The Constant Proportion strategy is very similar to the aforementioned Constant Bet strategy, but instead of placing bets at constant amounts, your bet size will remain equal to a certain percentage of your bankroll.
Let’s take a look at an example. Let’s say a player has a $100 bankroll and wants to place 10% on a specific color in each round of the game. In the first round, they place a bet of $10 (10% of $100) and win. His new bankroll is $110, so in the next round he wagers $11 (10% of $110). He continues like this until he wins a satisfying amount, loses everything or simply choses to stop playing.
As already mentioned, this strategy is very similar to the Constant Bet strategy, but with one extra element to it. If you keep winning, your bets will increase, which makes it easier to win big. On the other hand, if you keep losing, your bets will decrease, which means you will lose at a slower pace. This self-regulating mechanism makes the Constant Proportion strategy a bit more interesting than the Constant Bet strategy, at least in my opinion.
More information about the Constant Proportion strategy, including a number of simulations that show how it performs in real-life scenarios, can be found in the separate article about the Constant Proportion strategy.
As you can probably tell from the name of this roulette strategy, it’s about going all-in. It’s an extremely volatile strategy, which means there’s a great chance of losing your entire bankroll in just one round. In spite of this, it retains the highest expected return of all the strategies mentioned in this article, and possibly the highest roulette-based return you could ever hope to win with any given bankroll.
How does this strategy work? Basically, you wager your entire bankroll in a single round, at least once, or multiple times if you wish. The specific bets should depend on how much money you start with and how much money you want to end up with. Here are some examples:
This strategy also has a major drawback, however, in addition to its extremely high volatility. The play time for this strategy is virtually non-existent. You will most likely have only one spin, or a couple more if you are lucky (and your target win is really ambitious), which is why this strategy is not recommended for players who want to enjoy the game of roulette for a bit longer while they “go through” their bankroll.
As in all my strategies, I’ve written a separate article about the All-in roulette strategy, which contains all the necessary statistical details to understand it properly.
The Reverse Martingale strategy is very interesting for many reasons. You have a really fair chance of winning big while also enjoying the game for a reasonable amount of time, as well as it being relatively easy to predict. This strategy is a great fit for many people, as it can offer a nice balance between a decent expected value, the chance of winning big, major thrills, and extensive playing time.
You might have heard about this very well-known strategy known as Martingale, which consists of placing a single even-chance bet, and then doubling the wagered amount every time you lose. However, this doesn’t really work. You can read more about this strategy and take a look at the simulations that prove why it doesn’t work, in my article about scam roulette strategies.
The Martingale strategy essentially consists of increasing the size of your bet whenever you lose. The Reverse Martingale strategy is the opposite. You increase your bet every time you WIN. This enables you to transform a random series of lucky spins into huge possible wins.
Here is an example to show you how this strategy works. Imagine a player starting off with a $100 bankroll, who begins by betting $1 on any number on the roulette table.
The outcome of this strategy will vary enormously, depending on the percentage of the bankroll you wish to wager as your initial bet, and the satisfying amount you aim to win. I go into everything in more detail in the separate article about the Reverse Martingale strategy. Read it and find out why I think this strategy really is the best way to play roulette.
The Progressive Bet roulette strategy was created as a spin-off to the aforementioned Reverse Martingale strategy. While the Reverse Martingale strategy is mathematically great, I believe it might not be the preferred choice for many players who don’t like the idea of placing the entire win from previous spins in a single bet, or something else about the strategy.
The Progressive Bet strategy is also based on increasing bet sizes after a win, but not as much. Instead of wagering the entire amount of your winnings at once, this strategy works by wagering only a portion of what you won in the previous round.
Let’s take a look at an example to make things clearer. Imagine a player who starts off with $100, then chooses to place Corner bets at a $2 basic bet size. Every time they win, they wager 2/3 of the amount won in the next round. This is what their gameplay strategy might look like:
I did not choose this example by accident. It is, in fact, one of the most interesting options out of the 27 different combinations of bet types, basic bet sizes and multiplication factors (2/3 in this example) that I tested in my simulations, which you can find in a separate article about the Progressive Bet strategy.
There are some very important differences between the Progressive Bet strategy and the Reverse Martingale strategy. in the latter strategy, there were only two possible outcomes – either you reached the target value (or even exceeded it) or lost everything. The Progressive Bet strategy enables a wider variety of results. You could lose only a part of your money, or you could end up with a slight profit. And you could even win big, provided that you choose a good combination of factors as mentioned above.
What’s more, we tend to choose less volatile betting types for this strategy, meaning we get to place more bets of higher sizes, which makes the gameplay more enjoyable for certain players.
If this sounds interesting to you, make sure to check out the Progressive Bet strategy and find out even more.
In each of these articles, you can find detailed explanations about each of the strategies, as well as simulations and calculations that clearly show how they behave in real-life situations. If you want to know absolutely everything about my strategies, I suggest you read the articles linked above or at least those which interested you.
As already mentioned, there is no single strategy that’s suitable for everybody. Each player has their own roulette strategy, including their advantages and disadvantages. I could simply tell you to read the individual articles and find out more, but I will try to sum things up and give you some recommendations on the basis of not everyone wanting to get into specifics.
Whatever you end up choosing, always keep in mind that roulette is a game with negative expected value for the players, which means you will always lose money over the long-run. My strategies are not a miracle way to remove the edge enjoyed by the house, but to minimize its effect on your bankroll.
If you find some of the strategies particularly interesting, be sure to read its accompanying in-depth article to fully understand the details before trying it out. And if you decide to give it a try in a real casino, good luck at the tables!
The Constant bet strategy has a special place amongst all of the strategies I mentioned in the main roulette strategies article. It’s unwittingly used by many roulette players who just want to have fun and don’t really think about how they should play the game to maximize their chances to leave the casino with more money than they came in with.
The Constant Bet strategy consists of placing the same bet over and over again. It’s a simple strategy, but it’s also crucial to choose the best type of bet and the optimum bet size in order to maximize your chances of winning. Keep on reading to find out which is the best type of bet and bet size to use, all supported by computer simulations.
Note: This article focuses on the Constant Bet strategy, which is just one of the strategies I talk about in the main article. To understand absolutely everything, first of all it’s best to read the roulette strategies article and then focus on the individual strategies. If you haven’t read the main article yet, I strongly advise that you go back to it before focusing on the specific strategies.
I hesitated at first about calling the Constant Bet strategy a “strategy”, because it’s just one of the basic ways to play roulette. I’ve decided to include it in my analysis, however, as it can be used as a benchmark to compare all other strategies.
What’s more, while the base idea of the Constant Bet strategy is very simple, the expected results vary hugely depending on the type of bets you place and the percentage of your initial bankroll you wager during each game. Fundamentally, the Constant Bet strategy is about finding a compromise between two “polar” options:
A player walks into a casino with $100, sits down at a Roulette table and starts betting $1 on red or black (this might not be possible in brick-and-mortar casinos because of the bet size limits, but let’s ignore that for now). That person can stay at the table and play for hours or even days, but their chance of winning a bigger amount of money is virtually non-existent.
A player walks into a casino with $100, sits down at a Roulette table and starts betting $50 on a specific number. This player will most likely lose everything after their first two spins, but they will also have a chance, albeit a small one, of leaving the casino with a really big win.
Which approach is the best? Well, the optimal use of the Constant Bet strategy is somewhere in between, of course, but it’s virtually impossible to uncover its finer details just by thinking about it. That’s exactly why I used my own simulation software to discover the best type and size of bet to use when playing roulette, according to the Constant Bet strategy.
Now, we’re getting into the interesting stuff. I have run simulations to try and figure out the optimal combination of bet types and bet sizes to achieve the best overall results for a given scenario.
I think it’s important to disseminate all of the details about each simulation so that you can interpret the results correctly and get a clear picture about the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy, as well as understand all the combinations of bet types and bet sizes.
All simulations were run using my own simulation software, including probabilities and payouts for a single zero roulette without any special rules in place.
The first important thing to mention is the behavior of the players during each of the simulations. The players started with a bankroll of $100 and followed the Constant Bet strategy until:
Note: I chose 100 spins, not only because it’s a nice round number, but also because it could correspond to an average session at a roulette table. According to my observations and calculations, 100 spins would amount to approximately 3 hours at a live roulette table, or online roulette table with a live dealer.
As for the size of each individual bet, I decided to spread the numbers out across a range of $1 to $50, which covered all of the interesting scenarios in my opinion.
Note: I used a bankroll of $100 and bet sizes from $1 to $50. The thing that really matters, however, is the percentage of the bankroll wagered during each round. A $1 bet from a bankroll of $100 is equivalent to a bet $10 from a bankroll of $1,000. As long as the ratio between the bet sizes and the initial bankroll remains the same, the results should be the same. I am not considering bet size limits for this strategy, however, as they generally shouldn’t be an issue due to the constant bet sizes.
The number of players simulated in each simulation was 1,000,000, aimed at ensuring pretty accurate results. There will still be some statistical deviations, however, that won’t significantly influence the results or change the overall outcomes of the simulations.
Before getting to the more specific simulations and different bet sizes, let’s first take a closer look at how the Constant Bet strategy works with a fixed bet size of $4 and variable bet types, and get a better idea of how the bet type could change the expected results.
As you can see, almost all of the players betting on Color get to play through each of their 100 game rounds. They have virtually no chance of making a significant profit, however, as their balance tends to stay close to the initial bankroll. Almost all players who manage to make a profit leave with less than double their initial bankroll, except on very rare occasions. Players lose $10.8 from their bankroll on average, which is the most from any of the different bet types used in these simulations.
The possibility of playing through all 100 spins and leaving with a significant profit increases with more volatile bets, but with the chance of losing everything increasing rapidly as well. Over 50% of players betting $4 on a specific number (Straight up) lost everything before enjoying a single winning game round, as these players lost 25 rounds in a row. When playing live roulette, this adds up to about 45 minutes of play time.
Note: The percentage of participating players who lose within 30 to 50 spins, when betting on a Straight Up number, is exactly the same in this scenario, at 50.4%. This is because there is literally no chance of running out of money between the 30th and the 50th spin. You either lose everything in the first 25 spins or win at least one spin and get to play at least 61 spins. This is a direct consequence of the specific values I chose for these simulations.
Let’s take a look at the results. As one might expect, players betting $1 or $2 on red or black will definitely get to play the full 100 game rounds, but won’t have much of a chance to at least double their bankrolls.
That slightly changes when we get to $5, where the possibility of being in the profit after 100 spins is pretty much the same as when betting $1 or $2, but there is also a 1.5% chance of winning more than $100. This means, however, that an average of 4.3% of players won’t make it through all 100 spins.
There is a huge difference, however, between players betting $5 per round and players betting $10 per round. While the percentage of winners drops only slightly, the percentage of players who were not able to make it to 100 rounds increased almost tenfold, to 40.5%. This is because the number of players who “survived” the 100 spins with less than the initial $100 is much smaller when using the $10 bet.
This trend continues all the way to the last row of the table. The chance of winning a big amount gradually increases, but with the percentage of players losing everything within 30, 50, 75 and 100 spins also rising as the bet size increases. In terms of the maximum tested bet size of $50, only 25.2% of players made it through the first 30 spins, which is understandable as they only started with enough money to cover two bets.
As you can see in the tables, the average cost of using this strategy increases with higher bet sizes. This makes logical sense, as the players statistically lose a percentage of their bankroll each time they place a bet. The total wagered amount is higher with bigger bets, which also increases the average overall cost.
The ideal bet size to use with this specific strategy is $20 (or 20% of your initial bankroll) in my opinion. The best bet size for you personally could be quite different, however, but I believe that betting 20% of your initial bankroll on red or black brings a nice balance between the chance of winning big and the likelihood of enjoying the game of Roulette for an extended period of time.
By betting $20 you’ll have a 24.3% chance of making a profit after 100 spins, with a small 1.4% chance of winning five to ten times your bankroll. You’ll have a 54.6% chance of playing at least 50 spins, and the average number of spins you’ll play will be somewhere in the region of 45, which amounts to around 80 to 90 minutes of play in a live Roulette game.
The difference is noticeable right from the start. Players betting $1 now have a chance to at least double their initial bankroll, albeit a very small one (0.035%). Additionally, the percentage of winners increased by about 10% in comparison to players betting $1 on Color.
Players betting $2 in a single spin have a better chance of finishing with at least $200 after 100 spins, or more specifically a 4% chance. 6.3% of players didn’t make it through all of the 100 spins, however, as a direct consequence of the higher overall volatility caused by placing riskier bets.
When we take a look at the other end of the table with $20 and $50 bets, it’s clearly visible that these are a bit too risky for players who’d like to have a realistic chance of spending more than just a couple of minutes at the roulette table. Only 25.6% and 9.2% of players make it through the first 30 spins respectively, with a lot of the players losing everything without even experiencing one winning game round.
$10 bets are less risky than $20 and $50 bets, obviously, but are still quite risky as more than 50% of players run out of money within the first 30 spins.
For the reasons mentioned above, the best bet size for this specific strategy is somewhere between $3 and $5. Players betting $3 in one round have quite a good chance of more than doubling their initial bankrolls (11.95%) but only a very small chance of finishing with more than $500 (0.0011%). They are sure to play at least 33 game rounds, with the possibility of playing through all 100 spins also being very high, at 76%.
Jumping to $4 bets, the chance of achieving a bigger overall win increases, but the chance of ending up with more than $500 is still extremely low (0.04%). These players have a high likelihood of playing more than 30 spins, as they only need one winning spin in order to do so. Players betting $4 get roughly 82 spins on average, which amounts to a pretty nice playing time. On the other hand, almost 40% of these players don’t make it through all 100 spins.
Players betting $5 in each game take an even bigger risk. More than half of them (51%) don’t even get to play the full 100 spins. That being said, their chance of ending up with more than $500 increases significantly in comparison to the previous two groups, but it’s still only 0.47%.
If I had to choose one of the bet sizes out of the options I’ve experimented with in my simulations, I’d most likely pick $4 for its best risk-to-reward ratio. That being said, you’d do just as well betting $3 or $5 in each game round.
Finally, let’s take a look at bet sizes for the most volatile use of the Constant Bet strategy and the most volatile roulette bet type in general – the Straight Up bet, on one of 37 numbers available on the Roulette table and the Roulette wheel.
Note something strange right at the beginning of the table. The possibility of ending up with more money than you started with is higher than 50%. In my simulations, 50.9% of players who bet $1 ended up with more money than they started with. This occurred due to the specific conditions of my simulations and, more specifically, due to the number of spins being locked at 100.
To be in a profit after 100 spins, players only needed to win three or more of their spins. A big portion of players achieved this result, and ended up winning $8. In summary, a lot of players managed to win a small amount, therefore pushing the number of overall winners above 50%, while the RTP of this strategy is still, of course, lower than 100%.
The higher bets ($10, $20 and $50) all seem too risky to me. Of course, betting $50 Straight Up with just a $100 bankroll is a bit too risky, but 0.62% of the players who did this managed to win more than $5,000. On the other hand, 94.7% of them lost everything in the first two game rounds. It’s a similar situation with $20 and $10 bets, with winners winning less on average but managing to achieve slightly more play time.
$5 bets are quite interesting, but I still think they are a bit too risky for players who want to enjoy more extensive playing time. With this bet size you have to win at least one of your first 20 spins or you will run out of money. If you do manage to win one of your first 20 spins, there’s a pretty good chance you will make it through the entire 100 spins, but this only happens in roughly 42% of cases.
The optimum bet size for this specific strategy is somewhere between $2 and $4, in my opinion. It offers a good balance in terms of a decent play time and a reasonable chance of winning big.
If you want to have a good chance of playing through your entire 100 spins, and if smaller winnings are sufficient for you, the $2 bet size might be the best option. You have a 61.4% chance of playing through the full 100 spins, and a 13.16% chance of finishing with more than $200 after 100 spins.
If you would like to have a decent chance of winning more, the $3 or $4 bets are a better option. You have a 1.8% or 4.6% chance of finishing with more than $500 after 100 spins, respectively, and there is even a chance that you’ll increase your initial bankroll by a factor of 10 or more (0.002% for the $3 bet and 0.037% for the $4 bet). This also means you’ll play less game rounds on average and your chances of making it through the full 100 spins will be much lower.
All things considered, the Constant Bet strategy can be interesting for players who want to enjoy the game for a decent period of time while also having a reasonable chance of winning a more substantial amount of money. There are better strategies in terms of RTP, or the possibility of winning big sums of money, but strategies that are as easy to use as this one are really hard to find.
I strongly advise that you check out the other strategies explained in the Roulette strategies article, as strategies exist that can bring you better results.
If you decide to use the Constant Bet strategy, it wouldn’t hurt to utilize a good bet type and bet size combination. For players starting with $100 and seeking to play a maximum of100 rounds, the following options are the best:
The best combination might be different depending on your personal preferences , but these are the ones I personally prefer. Remember that these are the best options specifically for the Constant Bet strategy. You can achieve better results by using other strategies, which is why I recommend that you to go back to the main article and check them all out.
The Constant Proportion strategy consists of wagering a certain percentage of your current bankroll in each roulette spin. This means that the bet sizes will change, but the size of these bets in relation to your current bankroll will be constant. Hence the name I’ve chosen for this strategy.
I will show you how this strategy works for different bet types and bet sizes through my rigorously tested simulations, so that you can understand how these factors could influence your chances of winning at roulette.
Note: This article focuses solely on the Constant Proportion strategy. Note that in the main roulette strategies article I discuss other strategies that might be better for you. The main article also contains important information on how to fully understand this strategy, so it’s definitely a good idea to read that article before getting into the specifics of the Constant Proportion strategy.
The Constant Proportion strategy is very similar to the Constant Bet strategy, but with an additional element. When using the Constant Bet strategy, the bet sizes remain the same whether the player is doing well or doing horribly. On the other hand, the Constant Proportion strategy utilizes variable bet sizes that fluctuate depending on previous results.
So, if a player is doing well and winning, their bet sizes will keep rising and enable them to win even more. On the other hand, If they are losing money their bet sizes will slowly decrease and their potential losses will not accumulate as quickly as they would through the Constant Bet strategy. This self-regulating mechanism is what makes the Constant Proportion strategy a bit more advanced than the Constant Bet strategy.
So that everything is completely clear, here is an example of the Constant Proportion strategy in action. Let’s say the player wants to wager 10% of his bankroll on a Color bet. They start with $100 and place a bet of $10 on red. If they win they will then have $110, followed by placing a $11 in the next round. If they lose, they will drop to $90 and will only place a bet of $9 in the next round. The player will keep on doing this until they run out of money or decide to stop playing.
Just as in the Constant Bet strategy, the Constant Proportion strategy is also about finding a balance between:
High volatility is caused by more volatile bet types and bigger bets. Low volatility is caused by less volatile bet types and smaller bets. You could bet your entire bankroll on a specific Straight Up number and most likely lose everything in just one spin, or you could bet 1% of your bankroll on red or black, causing fluctuation to occur around your initial bankroll, but with a higher chance of ending up with less than your initial bankroll.
Logically, the best possible scenario will be somewhere in between and I will use my simulations to pinpoint exactly why.
There are two potential issues that need to be addressed. When betting a fixed proportion of your current bankroll, the amount you will need to bet will not always be “nice” or rounded. If you can’t place the exact amount according to your calculations, round your bet size up or down to the nearest number.
If you are unlucky and your calculated bet size is lower than the minimum bet of the roulette table will allow, just place the minimum bet size instead. I used this approach in my simulations.
Rigorous simulations are the best way to view how the strategy works, and how little changes in your playstyle can cause big differences in the expected results. I’ve used a number of simulations to test multiple Constant Proportion strategy bet types, and find outthe optimum percentage of your bankroll you should wager in each of them.
All simulations were run using my own carefully designed simulation software, including rules, probabilities and payouts for single zero roulette with no special rules (such as En Prison or La Partage). If you play classic European roulette your results should be in line with the results from my simulations.
As to the types of bets used, I took all alternatives into consideration and decided to use the following for my simulations:
I tested various bankroll proportions ranging from 1% to 50% wagered in each round, for each of the bet types mentioned above.
As already mentioned, the starting bankroll was $100, but other starting amounts should bring similar albeit non-identical results. This is because of the minimum bet limit of $1 that was used in the simulations. Higher bankrolls will be affected less by this strategy, while smaller bankrolls will be affected more. If the minimum bet rule wasn’t in place, any starting bankroll should yield statistically identical results.
I tested a sample of one million players in all of the simulations. This sample size should ensure that the results are statistically reliable, but with a number of statistical deviations that could still occur. This really shouldn’t significantly influence the results, however.
Let’s start this analysis of the simulation results by taking a look at players who wagered their money on the Color bet (red or black). This is the least volatile option, which should be evident in comparison to the other types of bets. Let’s take a look.
You can immediately see that betting 50% of your current bankroll in each round is just too risky, as almost none of the players make it through the entire 100 spins. They lose $90 of their $100 on average, making this bet size very bad value for the player. Only 0.137% of players ended up with more money than they started with.
The players wagering 20% in each game round had a much higher probability of making it to the 100-spin mark. Almost 75% of them actually got to play 100 spins. The chance of winning big is quite high, but due to the average cost being $42, this is a bit too much.
On the other side of the spectrum, players betting 1% to 4% of their current bankrolls have a 100% chance to play the full 100 spins, but with the possibility of winning big being just too low. This strategy is a bit better with a 5% proportional bet, but it’s still a bit boring because of the very small chance of winning big.
The strategy of betting 10% of your current bankroll in each round is the most interesting for this specific strategy. Players lost $23.8 of their $100 bankrolls on average but had quite a high chance of winning amounts of up to $500, and even a small chance of winning over $1,000, or even $5,000.
They have a good chance of winning big, and are still pretty much guaranteed to play the full 100 spins, as only 0.6% of players lose everything before the 100-spin mark. All in all, 22% of players end up with more money than they started with, while more than 77% of players are left with less than their initial bankroll (but with more than $0) after playing 100 game rounds.
The Corner Bet is somewhere in-between the least volatile and the most volatile type of roulette bet, which makes it more balanced. This should also be noticeable by looking at the results from my simulations, as shown below.
The bets of 20% and 50% of the current bankroll are just too volatile in my opinion. Every single player who bet 50% of their bankrolls lost everything before reaching 100 spins. It’s a bit better for players who wager 20%, but it’s still too risky.
What’s interesting is the fact that the average cost for players wagering 20% of their bankrolls was lower than when betting on Color (the previous simulation), while the percentage of winners is also lower. This means that less players end up with a profit, but those who do win finish with much more money. Nevertheless, it’s still too risky.
The 10% bet size of the current bankroll seems interesting, but I think it’s still a bit too risky. Only 48% of players make it to the end (100 spins) at an average cost of $25.5, which is higher than the average cost for the same bet size proportion for players who placed their chips on red or black.
On the other hand, bets of 1%, 2% and 3% of the current bankroll have a very low chance of winning big. You are pretty much sure of making it to the 100-spin mark, but at the cost of sacrificing your chance or walking away with more than $500 or $1,000 (although a small chance still exists).
In my opinion, this strategy yields the best overall results when wagering 4% or 5% of the current bankroll in each game round. The results for these two proportional bet sizes are quite similar, but there are still important differences worth pointing out.
The average cost is a bit higher for the 5% bet, which is quite obvious considering that the players wager more money overall. The percentage of winners is also lower, at 20.2% for the 5% bet in comparison to 25.7% for the 4% bet. Of course, players wagering 5% of their bankroll in each game round have a higher chance of winning big.
What it comes down to is preference. If you wish to have a strategy with better RTP and a reasonable chance of earning a substantial win, choose the 4% proportional bet. However, if you would like to increase your chances of winning big (over $1,000, or even over $5,000), the 5% bet size will be better for you.
Once again it’s pretty evident that the 50% and 20% bets are too volatile so, for this specific strategy, I would also add 10% bets to this category. Only 9% of players wagering 10% of their current bankroll in each game round get to play the full 100 Roulette spins, which is too low.
The players betting 1% or 2% of their current bankroll have a great chance of ending up with more money than they started with (48.8% and 25.9% respectively), but their chance of winning big is very low, which is why I prefer the slightly higher stakes in this scenario.
The sweet-spot for this specific strategy lays somewhere between the 3% and 5% bets. However, after taking a closer look at the results for players wagering 4% and 5% of their current bankrolls in each game round, it’s clear that the 5% bets are inferior to the 4% ones.
The players wagering 5% have a lower chance of winning in almost all of the categories mentioned in the above table, apart from the chance of leaving with $500 to $1,000, which is only 0.01% higher for the 5% bets. The 4% bets are superior in all other categories.
For this specific strategy, I would choose either the 3% or the 4% bets, with the comparison between each of them not being so one-sided. The players wagering 3% of their bankrolls lose less on average and have a greater chance of getting through the full 100 spins, but they also have a lower chance of walking away with more than $1,000.
So, if you want to have a bigger chance of getting into four figures, choose 4%. If you don’t “need” to win that much and you want to spend more time playing Roulette (on average), feel free to choose the 3% bets.
The results of these simulations help to demonstrate the concept that higher volatility is better over the long-term, just as I mentioned in the main roulette strategies article. When betting on Color, bet sizes need to be high in order to have a realistic chance of winning big, but with players wagering more money in total and therefore losing more money on average.
This is why I wouldn’t choose the Color Bet. In my opinion, if you really like betting on red or black, the best bet size is 10% of your current bankroll, but I think you would be much better off wagering your money on Corner or Straight Up bets.
The Constant Proportion strategy is just one of the many strategies I present in my main article on roulette strategies. There are also other good strategies you can use which might be more suitable for you and your preferences. Be sure to check them out before making a decision on how to play Roulette, and whether to play it at all.
The All-in roulette strategy is the most volatile roulette strategy that I can think of. It is extremely risky, and you will very likely lose everything in just a couple of spins. However, if you do manage to win these couple of spins there will be a huge reward waiting for you.
The All-in roulette strategy is very simple. It is played by going all-in and wagering your entire bankroll in one round, once or multiple times in a row, depending on how much you would like to win. It has only two possible outcomes; the likelihood of losing everything, or the possibility of reaching your target amount and walking away with a big win.
This strategy really isn’t for everyone. Although it has great RTP and the potential of attaining huge wins, it’s too volatile for the vast majority of players who want to enjoy a game of roulette for more than just a couple of minutes. It’s an extreme strategy that helps to demonstrate the effects of huge variances in outcomes.
Note: This article focuses specifically on the All-in roulette strategy. There are other great strategies that are less volatile and have a more balanced risk-to-reward ratio. Be sure to check these out in the main article containing all of my other roulette strategies.
The All-in strategy is extremely simple. It works by exploring the shortest path between your initial bankroll and the win you’d like to walk away with, then following that path. Here’s a more thorough description, for greater clarity. These are the individual steps:
Here’s an example to help you envisage how this strategy works. A player starts with $100 and would like to win at least $10,000. There are multiple series of bets this person can choose from:
Let’s say the player chooses option #2. They wager their $100 on a Split Bet, for a potential win of $1,800. If they win this bet, they then place their $1,800 on a Six Line, hoping to win $10,800. If they manage to win these two bets in a row, they achieve their target winnings and can happily leave the casino, although this scenario isn’t very likely.
In terms of expected return, it really doesn’t matter which of these options the player choses. Due to the RTP of any roulette bet being the same (at least in single zero roulette), it really doesn’t matter. The chances of finishing with $10,800 are the same, as long as the player only places two individual bets in total. If you manage to find another way of getting from $100 to $10,800 using a higher number of individual bets, the possibility of achieving this would be lower.
There is one particular issue that this extremely volatile strategy can run into; the bet size limits imposed by the casino. The minimum bet limits shouldn’t be an issue with this type of strategy for most players, but the maximum bet limits can be if you are aiming for a really big win.
If your aim is to win the $10,800 figure I mentioned in my earlier example, it shouldn’t be a problem. If your target amount of money is higher, however, make sure you verify the casino table limits first and find out if you are permitted to place the entire sequence of bets, just in case you get lucky and actually make the last bet.
And remember to pay attention to the specifics of bet size limits. The casinos often have various maximum bet limits for different bet types, enabling you to bet much more on Color than you can on Straight Up, for example. Using these kinds of bet size limits, the casinos effectively limit the amount you could win in one spin. Always check the bet size limits before playing.
I have already stated that individual bets don’t matter at all in terms of RTP, as long as the number of bets in this sequence remains the same. There is one thing, however, that the individual bets and their order influence; the amount of time you get to play.
Let’s say you chose the first option from the three aforementioned suggestions, and you would like to progress from $100 to $10,800 by placing a Straight Up Bet and a Dozen Bet. You have two possible ways of doing this:
In both instances you have the same chance of winning $10,800. In the first example you lose 36/37 of your first game rounds and only have a 1/37 chance of being able to place the second bet. If you switch up the bets, you will have a 12/37 chance of playing both spins. That means you’ll statistically play 1.027 roulette spins in the first example, and 1.324 roulette spins in the second example. It’s a very small difference, but it’s still something worth taking into account.
Simulations were used for all of the other roulette strategies I tested to demonstrate how they function across a larger number of spins. This doesn’t really make sense for the All-in strategy, however, as you’ll almost never want to play more than 3 spins in a row. Such a small number of spins can be very nicely expressed using simple statistics and calculations.
Note: This strategy can be used with practically any amount of money, as long as you can cover the minimum bet at the brick-and-mortar or online casino you are playing at. In my examples I will start off with $10 instead of the $100 I use in my other strategies, due to the extremely high volatility.
As you can see, the average cost depends on the number of bets you place in succession, nothing more than that. The first two examples both consist of one bet only, which means the house edge (2.7%) also gets applied only once.
The four following examples consist of two bets, which means the house edge gets applied two times in a row, causing the players to lose more over the long run. The last example consists of three bets, which is why the average cost is the highest of all.
The theoretical return of this strategy is high, especially when compared to the possible wins you could achieve, but the chances of winning big are extremely low, as you would expect. This is a good strategy to try out if you have a couple of bucks you don’t mind losing, but you really shouldn’t expect to win huge amounts of money, as this is unlikely.
Regardless of whether you win or lose, you will only play two or three spins at the most. If you are looking for a way of playing roulette that allows you to enjoy the game for longer periods of time, I strongly suggest you check out my other roulette strategies. You might find a better alternative.
However, if you decide to use the All-in strategy, make sure your expectations remain realistic and that you verify the bet size limits at your brick-and-mortar or online casino, so that you know whether you’ll be permitted to place the last bet of your series if you manage to make it that far.
Before we get started I’d like to point out that this the best roulette strategy there currently is, in my opinion. It excels because of the foreseeable amount of time you get to play, the high return for players, and the chance of potentially getting massive wins. I will get to that later on.
The Reverse Martingale strategy takes its name from the infamous Martingale strategy, which consists of increasing your bet size after each loss. The Reverse Martingale strategy is the opposite of this. Instead of increasing the bet size after each loss, you increase it after each win with the aim of turning a short streak of winning game rounds into a massive win.
Note: This article is a part of my series of articles about the best roulette strategies, with the Reverse Martingale strategy being the one with the best results, and the one I find the most interesting. If you haven’t already done so, I strongly advise that you read the main article on roulette strategies before focusing on any specific strategies.
To make this strategy a bit clearer, here’s a simple example of what the Reverse Martingale roulette strategy might look like in action. Let’s say a player starts with $100, and places $1 basic bets on a Straight Up number. This player would like to walk away with at least $1,000. They lose their first 27 spins, but then manage to win a spin, resulting in a $36 win (including their original stake). The player places this $36 on a Straight Up number, and loses. They then go back to placing their basic bets of $1 until they lose everything or win two spins in a row, which would move their bankroll over their target amount ($1 * 36 * 36 = $1,296).
As you might have already noticed, this strategy has only two possible outcomes. You either lose your entire bankroll, or manage to win a satisfying amount. The Reverse Martingale strategy is very similar to the All-in roulette strategy from this point of view. The Reverse Martingale strategy can be seen as many rounds of the All-in strategy, played one after another, but with a much smaller budget in each instance.
Your chances of succeeding (i.e. reaching the target amount) depends on these factors. In the simulations detailed later in this article, multiple combinations will be tested in order to calculate the probability of winning, including the long-term return to the player for each of these combinations.
The idea of wagering the entire win from the previous spin, in just one game round, might seem too risky for some players even though it’s statistically the best option. There is also an option to wager just a part of the winnings after each win instead of wagering the entire previously won amount.
For example, instead of betting the basic $1 bet on a number and then betting the entire $36 immediately after a win, you could place an $18 bet, or even just a $12 bet. Simply speaking, you choose the percentage of each win you would like to wager again, and then stick to it. Let’s say you choose to bet 50% of each previous win. After winning the first spin, you decide to bet $18. The potential win from that spin would be $648, so your next bet size in succession would be $324.
This version of the Reverse Martingale strategy might be more attractive to some players because they don’t have to immediately place all of their winnings during the next spin. This is inferior to the “classic” version of the Reverse Martingale strategy, however, in terms of expected value.
Note: In my simulations and in the rest of this article I work with the classic version of the Reverse Martingale strategy, by which the player wagers their entire winnings from the previous spin, all at once. I just wanted to demonstrate to my readers that there are other options.
The idea of not wagering the entire win at once has actually been made into a separate strategy, which is also very interesting, and might be more suitable for some players in comparison to the Reverse Martingale strategy. We decided to call it the Progressive Bet strategy. Check it out and decide for yourselves which option you find more interesting.
AT the beginning of this article I stated that, in my opinion, this is the best roulette strategy there is. This is a strong claim, which is why I think it’s necessary to present the reasoning behind my opinion.
As I mentioned in the main article on roulette strategies, my strategies are based on finding a balance between four factors. The Reverse Martingale strategy is great because it ranks well for all of these factors:
All of my strategies rank well in at least some of these factors. The Constant Bet strategy and the Constant Proportion strategy do well in terms of play time, but the chances of winning big are very small and their RTP tends to get quite low the more the bet sizes increase, in addition to the thrill factor being rather lackluster.
The All-in strategy has great RTP, a good chance of winning big and a huge thrill factor (which is too high for most people), but you’ll only get to play one or two spins in most cases, which means the play time is not that great if you want to enjoy the game for a decent period of time.
The balance of the aforementioned four factors is what makes the Reverse Martingale strategy the best in my opinion. I am not saying it’s the best option for everybody, but I’m pretty sure it’s the best overall option, which you should definitely consider if you are looking for an efficient and enjoyable way to play roulette.
When using the Reverse Martingale strategy you might run into issues with bet size limits at the brick-and-mortar or online casino you play at. Just as with the All-in strategy, the bet sizes increase quite rapidly when you are winning, which means the bet limits might be a problem if you don’t plan them in advance.
Just as I mentioned in my article on the All-in roulette strategy, make sure you check the table limits before you start playing so that you pick a specific bet type and target amount you can actually go through with. If you find out that the bet size limits could prevent you from reaching your target amount, you should reconsider your strategy and change your target amount.
I am aware of the fact that most people reading this article play casino games online, so I thoroughly checked online roulette bet size limits and struggled to find an example in which you can bet more than $500 Straight Up or $20,000 on a Color. There are online casinos with higher bet size limits, but access to these might be limited by your VIP status or your current balance. With this in mind, I tried to limit the amounts used in my simulations to levels achievable by recreational players, which could then be used in real life.
Note: The All-in strategy has even bigger issues with bet size limits, but I decided to refrain from going into such detail in my article. Here I present the Reverse Martingale strategy as the best option, so I want to make sure that everything is clear, realistic and usable.
The Reverse Martingale strategy is all about trying to multiply the basic bet as many times as needed in order to reach a predetermined target amount. By purposefully creating a sequence of different bet types, it’s possible to get close to any nice and round multiple of your initial bankroll. This is demonstrated in the table below.
Note: Although different amounts are reachable by combining different bet types in a sequence, I decided to use only one bet type in each simulation. This makes it clear which bet type is statistically the best, in addition to the simulations being easier to create and understand.
One of the advantages of the Reverse Martingale strategy is the expected play time, which is highly predictable and doesn’t change that much. Due to its nature, this strategy is calculable to a great degree of precision.
This progression is known as a geometric sequence in which its sum can be precisely calculated depending on type of bets the player places. The table below displays the expected total number of spins for different bet types.
The expected number of spins in the table above is calculated using an infinite series, which means the results you get might (and most likely will) be at least slightly different. The number of spins you get to play might differ, but the differences should be quite small, especially after playing a large number of game rounds.
The numbers from the simulations should correspond with the numbers from the calculations. Let’s get to the simulations to see if they really do correspond.
Simulations are the best way to test the strategy’s effectiveness and efficiency in action. Real-life tests are an issue however due to the virtual impossibility of producing a sample size with a reasonable level of statistical significance. Let’s take a look at the simulations to see what kind of results the Reverse Martingale strategy brings.
Before we get to the results themselves, it’s important to explain how the simulations were carried out, so that everything is completely clear.
First of all, the simulations were created using my own simulation software utilizing the rules and odds for single zero roulette, without any special rules in force such as En Prison or La Partage. Single zero roulette should always be used due to the much more favorable odds for the player, which results in higher a RTP strategy.
Note: Due to this strategy being presented as the best one to use, I need to make sure that nothing is holding it back, and that the specific sequences used in my simulations are actually feasible. That’s why I decided to lower the basic bet size from the originally intended amount of $1, to just $0.1 in my simulations, so that the target amounts are actually reachable in terms of the bet size limits widely used in online casinos.
Remember that you can increase the numbers as long as the basic bet size and bankroll ratio remains the same. For example, a simulation with a $0.1 basic bet, a $10 bankroll and a target amount of $102.4 would have the same results as a simulation using a $1 basic bet, a $100 bankroll and a target amount of $1,024, as long as the bet type also remains the same.
For each bet type, initial bankroll and target amount, I simulated 1,000,000 runs. This sample size should be big enough to make the results statistically reliable, although it’s possible that there could still be some deviations in the runs with higher volatility. The results should be reliable enough, however, to draw solid conclusions.
Let’s start with the Color Bet type and a $10 bankroll, which is enough for 100 spins using the basic bet. Because bets on Color have very low volatility, players will have to win a higher number of spins in a row in order to get a decent win. Let’s see how many of them managed to do it.
The following table displays the results of another run of simulations, but this time with a bankroll of $100, which is enough for 1,000 basic bet spins. This time the minimum target amount was set to $102.4 because that’s the first value that’s actually higher than the starting bankroll.
As you can clearly see, the number of winners and the average costs keep getting lower and higher, respectively, the more the target amount increases. This is, of course, pretty self-explanatory, as higher wins are less likely (hence lower numbers of winners), in addition to players having to place higher bets in order to achieve these wins, resulting in higher average costs. This will be similar for all bet types.
The second group of simulations follows players that place their bet on a Corner Bet type. Just as in the previous simulations, the first table contains results from simulations using a $0.1 basic bet and a $10 bankroll, which is enough for 100 basic spins.
The following table contains the results from simulations using a $0.1 basic bet and a $100 bankroll, which is enough for 1,000 basic spins. The target values start at $656.1, due to this being the first possible target value which is higher than the starting bankroll.
The last two simulations focus on using the most volatile type of roulette bet – the Straight Up bet on a single number. Both tables have a basic bet size of $0.1, with the budget being $10 (100 basic spins) for the first table, and $100 (1,000 basic spins) for the second table.
When we look at the simulations for each individual bet type, it’s evident that the average cost keeps growing in relation to higher desired winnings. This is because of the need to place bigger bets to achieve greater wins, which also increases the costs.
In roulette, you statistically lose a portion of every bet you place (2.7% in European roulette), which is why bigger bets equate to higher long-term costs for the players. In fact, the average cost for each bet type and desired win can be precisely calculated by means of this formula:
Average cost (%) = 1 – (36/37) ^ (number of wins in a row needed to reach the target)
Note: This average-cost formula works really well over the long-term, but the results from my simulations are a bit different for certain values, especially those with a high volatility. For example, the average cost of getting to $167961.6, from an initial bankroll of $10, is $1.27, and from $100, the average cost is $9.3, in my simulations, but statistically it should be $1.038 and $10.38, respectively. It would be necessary to simulate a huge number of players to get more accurate results, but it’s honestly not that important. As they stand, the simulations paint a pretty accurate picture of the strategy.
The probability of achieving the target amount is fair. The higher the target you set, the less likely you are to achieve it. That’s simply how statistics work in this case. If you want to win really big, you’ll have to accept the fact that you won’t win very often.
The size of the target amount is entirely up to you due to it not being possible to objectively define which of them is the best. You are simply trading the possibility of a higher win for an increased average cost.
What can be objectively judged, however, is the bet type. When you take a look at the tables showing the results from my simulations, you can clearly see that the average costs are much higher when placing bets on Color. This is due to a bigger number of wins in a row being needed, a higher number of bets needing to be placed, and bet sizes tending to be higher.
Note: The average cost formula also clarifies this, by specifying the number wins needed in a row to reach the target amount. As this number gets bigger, the average cost also increases.
The table below displays the simulation results for bet types of varying sizes, but with similar target amounts. Let’s take a look at these results so we can draw a clear comparison between the bet types and their average costs.
As you can clearly see, the “Straight Up” column has the highest desired win of the three examples, as well as having the lowest average cost. This is a clear sign that higher volatility yields better results, just as I’ve stated in my main article on roulette strategies.
I’ve previously mentioned that higher desired wins are connected to higher average costs, but that’s only true when the bet type remains the same. By moving to higher volatility bets, you can increase the desired win and decrease the average cost at the same time. If you are looking for maximum efficiency, you should definitely stick to the Straight Up bets.
The only reason to stick to the bets with lower variance is if you want to play a higher number of spins and have a bit more fun. The downside to using the most volatile Straight Up bet is having the lowest number of spins, and the fact that you only get to place higher bets very rarely, which might decrease the thrill factor to some degree.
If you’d like to have a few more spins you could try placing Corner Bets, but try to stay away from the Color Bet, as its average cost is so much higher.
The Reverse Martingale strategy really is the best strategy I can think of. For example, it gives you a realistic possibility of winning $4665.6 with an initial bankroll of just $10. Although the chance of achieving this is lower than 0.2%, the entire game will cost you only $0.87 on average. To my knowledge, there is no other roulette strategy with such a good ratio between the potential or winning and the average cost.
Please keep in mind that this strategy is just one of multiple strategies I have included in my roulette strategies article. Although I think this is the best one, you now have comprehensive information to choose the best way to play roulette. Please give the main article a read through, and remember to check out the other strategies to see if any of them are better or not.
If you decide to try the Reverse Martingale strategy, I strongly advise that you stay away from the Color Bet type, and choose either Corner or Straight Up bets, with the last one being statistically the best option by far.
The Reverse Martingale roulette strategy is great in many respects. It has great expected value which makes it a great way to play roulette if maximizing efficiency is your number one priority. It’s not perfect, however, which is why I decided to modify it slightly to create a strategy I refer to as the Progressive Bet Strategy, which could be more suitable for certain players.
This strategy is derived from the Reverse Martingale strategy, which functions by wagering the entire amount won after each win, until a predetermined target value is reached. In the Progressive Bet strategy, bets are also increased after each win, but not by that much. Players don’t wager the entire amount that they won during the previous round, but only a portion of that amount.
Note: This strategy is just one of the roulette strategies presented in the main article as the best possible ways of playing roulette. It’s great in so many respects, but neither is it perfect, so I strongly advise that you read the main article and check out the other roulette strategies as well. You might like some of those strategies more than this.
This strategy is a bit more complicated than the other strategies I have presented in this series, but it’s still quite manageable even for less experienced players after they have put in a short study session. You should be able to use this strategy without any issues after you’ve read this article, should you choose to use it.
Whenever a player wins they then calculate the size of the proceeding bet, and then place it. Whenever a player loses, they go back to placing a basic bet and continue from there. Check out the example below to get a better idea of how the Progressive Bet strategy actually works.
Imagine a player who starts with a bankroll of $100 and places a $4 Corner Bet in each round. This is their basic bet. If they win one of their $4 Corner bets, they get $36 back from the dealer (including their original $4 bet). In the following game round, the player places an $18 Corner Bet (half of $36). If they win again, they receive $162 back from the dealer, followed by placing an $81 Corner Bet, and so on. Whenever the player loses, they go back to the $4 basic bet they started with.
The game could statistically play out a lot differently, however, if the player decides to use different bet sizes. This is why I have used simulations to demonstrate how the expected results vary depending on the three parameters mentioned above.
When coming up with this strategy, I initially thought about adding a target value (or a desired win) which would seem like a satisfactory amount to the player. After achieving this amount, the player would then choose whether tostop increasing their bet size, or to stop playing altogether. Let me explain why I decided not use this method in my strategy.
A target value, or a bet size ceiling, would absolutely make sense for this strategy. If the player wins a couple of rounds in a row, the calculated bet size for the following roulette spin might become too big. A target value solves this issue very effectively.
On the other hand, a target value would make a strategy that already is quite difficult to follow even more complicated. That’s why I decided not to use a target value for these simulations. It would require the testing of so many more options in comparison to my chosen setup.
Note: Of course, if you feel like this is a better way to play, you could always pick a target value and then decide what to do when you reach it. You might decide to stop increasing your bet sizes, go back to placing a basic bet, or stop playing altogether. The choice is yours, although your results may vary a bit in comparison to my simulations. Variations will depend on how high or low you place your ceiling.
Players who have already taken a look at my other strategies will appreciate how my simulations demonstrate the manner in which betting systems function when put into real use. Thanks to these simulations, I have been able to test out different values in terms of the aforementioned parameters and subjectively discover the best way to use this strategy in a casino.
Note: I used the word “subjectively” above because there is no single way to use this strategy in a way that everybody might consider to be the best. Each player has different preferences, which influences their choices. That being said, I will definitely point out which option I personally consider the best.
I think it’s important to let you know how the simulations were conducted, so that everything is completely clear to you, including the best way to interpret the results.
The simulations were created using my own simulation software in a single zero roulette scenario, but without any special rules such as La Partage or En Prison. The odds and probabilities are identical to a typical game of European roulette.
The simulated players all started with $100, and followed the strategy until they either lost everything or reached the milestone of 100 game rounds. This enabled each player to participate in a maximum of 100 game rounds, after which time the game simply stopped, with the results being evaluated.
This structure created 27 possible combinations. For each of them I have simulated a total of 1,000,000 runs. This sample size should be big enough to make the results statistically reliable, although there is still a possibility of some statistical deviations. That being said, the results of my simulations should be reliable enough to give you a solid idea of how the parameters influence the expected results.
Let’s start with the least volatile betting option out of the three chosen for these simulations; the Column Bet that covers 12 individual numbers on a roulette table layout and awards the player with 3x the wagered amount after they have won a round. Here are the results from the simulations.
The tables above nicely demonstrate how this strategy performs when put into active use. First of all, let’s take a look at the average cost. With higher initial bets and higher multiplication factors, the players simply wager more money during the 100 (or fewer) spins they play. In roulette, players statistically lose a certain percentage of their bets, which is equal to the house edge (approx. 2.7% in European roulette). The increasing average cost therefore makes sense.
Situations with a 1/3 multiplication factor don’t really make sense in this example, due to the bet sizes never becoming bigger than the basic bet. The Column Bet pays out three times the basic bet, so multiplying that by a factor of 1/3 means that the player never actually bets more than the basic bet. That’s why the results are very similar to those achieved through the Constant Bet strategy. I decided to include these situations anyway, as I wanted the basic bets and multiplication factors to be the same across all simulations.
Firstly, let’s focus on the basic bet size. Higher basic bets increase the average cost, of course, as already mentioned. Higher bets also decrease the percentage of winners. Players who place bigger bets are more likely to run out of money, which increases the likelihood of ending up with less money than they started with. On the other hand, higher basic bets also mean that players are more likely to win big.
Secondly, let’s take a look at each basic bet size and their various multiplication factors. As already mentioned, the 1/3 multiplication factor doesn’t make sense when placing the Column Bet, so I will focus on 1/2 and 2/3 only. When comparing these bets, it is evident that the higher multiplication factor is connected to a higher average cost, and a lower chance of ending up with a profit, but it also increases the possibility of winning big.
This strategy does not provide a single best option for everyone, but here is my opinion on which parameters are the best to use when placing the Column Bet. The main parameter to consider is the multiplication factor. If you want to maximize your chances of winning big, the 2/3 multiplication factor will be better for you. The chance of winning is lower in comparison to the 1/2 multiplication factor options, but there is, however, a chance of winning more than $1,000, or even $5,000. The chance of winning is quite miniscule, but still much higher than with the 1/2 option.
If you’re looking to make a profit and don’t really need to win big, stick with the 1/2 multiplication factor. You’ll have a higher overall chance of making a profit, lower risk of losing everything, and a lower average cost. Please bear in mind, however, that you are sacrificing the possibility of winning big.
In terms of the basic bet size, I think the $2 options are all pretty dull, so I would definitely rule those out. Both the $4 and $8 options are interesting, with your choice really depending on your attitude towards risk. Bear in mind that the percentage of players who could lose everything before the 100-spin-mark is quite high when using the $8 options, although their chance of winning is pretty decent.
The Six Line bet is a more volatile option when compared to the Column bet. This involves betting on six different numbers located in two adjoining rows on the roulette table. Expect there to be more big wins due to the higher degree of volatility, but also expect more players to lose their entire bankrolls quickly. Let’s take a look at the results to check whether this is true or not.
Something is clearly visible right from the start. The average costs are very similar to those in the Column Bet simulations. This is because the average cost depends on the total wagered amount, which is not influenced by the bet type that much.
The basic bets have the same stake in each respective basic bet and multiplication factor combination, so their contribution to the average cost is the same, regardless of the bet type. The bet sizes of the increased bets (after wins) have a higher value through the Six Line bet type, but the player is less likely to reach such values in comparison to the Column Bet type. These two factors cancel each other out, and the average cost doesn’t change that much in relation to bet type either.
The higher volatility of the Six Line bet is noticeable at first glance, simply by the percentage of players losing their entire bankroll before finishing 30, 50, 75 and 100 spins. A much higher percentage of players didn’t make it through the entire 100 spins, which was caused by the fact that this bet type is simply more volatile and therefore riskier. On the other hand, the chances of winning big are also higher, which makes it more suitable for players who don’t shy away from increasing risk in exchange for a greater potential of winning big.
Just like in the first example, there is no single option that is best for everybody. The option with $4 basic bet and 1/3 multiplication factor is quite interesting. It has one of the highest percentages of winners (only beaten by a $2 and the 1/3 combination, which I find a bit too dull), while also maintaining a decent chance of winning big. That being said, the vast majority of winners don’t finish with very big profits.
A version using a slightly higher multiplication factor ($4, 1/2) has a lower percentage of overall winners, but the chance of winning more than five times the initial bankroll is much higher.
The $8 and 1/3 option is very similar to the $4 and 1/2 option, essentially with the same percentage of winners and average cost. The difference between the two is that the first option achieves more wins in the medium range (players leaving with 2-10 times their initial bankroll), while the second option has more winners in the 1-2 times category and the 10+ category.
I advise players to choose one of the three options mentioned above, depending on their preferences and which one of the starting bet combinations and multiplication factors they find the most suitable.
The Corner Bet covers four individual numbers that share a common corner. This is the most volatile option that I decided to test out this strategy, having a 4/37 chance of winning in each game, and wins being 9x the wagered amount. Let’s take a look at the results.
As in the previous two bet types, the Corner Bet simulations resulted in a very similar average cost. They are very close to Column Bet and Six Line Bet average costs, which helps to prove the previously mentioned fact.
Also, the higher volatility of the Corner Bet was clearly manifested in the results of the simulations. Generally speaking, the winnings tend to be bigger but less frequent, with a higher percentage of players losing their entire bankrolls before reaching their 100th spin. These effects are a direct consequence of higher volatility, and are to be expected.
If you prefer bigger wins and don’t mind the higher possibility of losing everything, this bet type might be the best for you out of the ones I have tested.
Again, picking the best basic bet size and multiplication factor can’t be done in an objective manner, as this is influenced by the preferences of every individual player. The $4 and $8 basic bet options with the highest multiplication factor (2/3) are just too volatile, as well as having the two highest average costs. They do offer a respectable chance of winning really big, but I personally think it’s just not worth the high possibility of losing everything quite quickly.
The $2 and 2/3 option seems very interesting. The player gets to play at least 50 games even if they don’t win a single one of them, while also having a decent chance of winning big. This option has the second highest chance of winning more than 50-times the initial bankroll, only beaten by the $8 and 2/3 option I ruled out because of being too volatile.
The $4 and 1/2 option is also reasonably volatile, but has a higher percentage of winners, and only a slightly higher average cost in comparison to the aforementioned option. Using this specific strategy, players have a better chance of making a profit, but also a higher chance of losing everything quickly because of the higher basic bet.
If you are not looking for such a big win, and a smaller profit is satisfactory to you, the $4 basic bet and 1/3 multiplication factor could be ideal for you. This option has a very high overall percentage of winners (more than 30%), as well as being a thrill to play, while keeping your chances of winning big at least somewhat alive.
I have done my best to provide thorough explanations of the results of each simulation above, in addition to selecting the options I consider to be the most interesting. I have put all of these results in a single table in order to compare the individual ‘champions’ and to ultimately select the best one.
Note: I eliminated these options, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they won’t be good for you. You could have different preferences to my own, so don’t shy away from using one or more of the options above if you personally find them the best.
These options are not bad at all, but not as good as the two options mentioned above, at least in my opinion. They fall somewhere in between the two best combinations of parameters to use. Depending on your preferences, you might choose these options over the two I picked earlier, so make sure to check them all out.
If you’re looking for even higher volatility, make sure to check out the Reverse Martingale strategy, in which you wager everything you’ve won in the previous game round, all at once. It’s an all or nothing strategy but also great mathematically, and could be the preferred option for you.
As you can see from the results brought about by the selected options, the Progressive Bet strategy can yield some really interesting results. If you’re looking for a strategy with a good balance of risk and a chance of winning big, consider using this strategy as a go-to method of playing roulette.
The Progressive Bet strategy is just one of the strategies presented in the main roulette strategies article. There are other great strategies that might be more suitable for your play style and preferences. None of them will enable you to magically beat roulette, but it’s good to know the options before making a well-informed decision.
I would like to emphasize that all of the selected options and recommendations were based on my personal preferences, although you may prefer something else. I tend to go for best performance as a sacrifice for a bit of excitement, but I know that there are many players who prefer it the other way around.
I hope this roulette strategy guide was useful for you and helped you find your preferred way of playing this game.
Before going into a casino and starting to play roulette, it is important to understand the basics of the game, as well as the differences between different types of roulette. Thanks to this knowledge, you are able to make good decisions before sitting down at a roulette table, and most importantly, while playing the game.
In this article, I will go over the basic types of roulette and take a closer look at the roulette wheel layout and roulette table layout. If you don’t know the basics of roulette, you should also read my article about roulette rules and odds.
The games of American, European and French roulette are very similar. All of them are played by spinning a roulette wheel, with a small metal ball and players betting on the outcome of the spin. However, there are differences between the different versions of roulette that are definitely worth mentioning.
Of course, the table layout is also different, but only slightly. It’s almost the same, with the only difference being the 00 section on the American roulette table layout. The only other difference might be in the language of the text on the roulette table layout. The table layout in French roulette is basically always in French, regardless of the country the game is played in.
The fact that single zero roulette has only 37 numbers in total (1 less than double zero roulette), while the payout ratios remain the same, makes it clear that the RTP of American roulette is worse for the player. European and French roulette are much better in this regard, because they have a higher RTP and therefore lower house edge.
The RTP of European roulette is 97.3 %, while the RTP of American roulette is only 94,74 %. Therefore, it’s easy to say that European roulette is much better for the player. If you have a choice, always opt to play European (or French) roulette.
Apart from that, the games are pretty much the same. There are some differences in bets on single and double zero roulette which exist because of the one extra number (00) in American roulette. There is a special bet called “top line” in American roulette, which covers the numbers 0, 00, 1, 2 and 3, while the bets called “trio” (0-1-2 or 0-2-3) and “basket” (0-1-2-3) are only available on European and French roulette tables.
On top of that, French roulette is generally played with a rule called “La Partage”, which further changes the RTP of certain bets. There are other rules like this that change the way roulette is played, or at least the payouts given to the player for certain bets.
As you probably already noticed, I described these differences only extremely briefly. That’s because I’ve written a comprehensive article about roulette rules and odds, which will help you develop a deeper understanding of the game. Feel free to read it here: Roulette Rules and Odds – Bets, Payouts & Probabilities Explained.
The layout of the roulette wheel is one of the most important aspects of the game. It contains all of the numbers players can bet on. The numbers on the roulette wheel are not in ascending nor descending order, and, they are not randomly ordered either. The roulette wheel layout has its purpose.
As you can probably already tell, the two roulette wheel layouts are not equally balanced. The single zero roulette wheel that is used for European and French roulette is much more balanced than the double zero roulette wheel used for American roulette, especially when it comes to the alternating distribution of high and low numbers.
The roulette wheel layout can also be important in the game. There are certain bets that use different sectors of the roulette wheel to determine which numbers to bet. These bets are also called announced bets, and are available mostly on European and French roulette tables.
European and French roulette is played with a single zero roulette wheel. This wheel has 37 numbered slots in total, occupied by the numbers from 1 to 36 (red or black colors) and the number 0 (green color).
The number sequence on the European and French roulette wheel goes like this:
American roulette is played with a double zero roulette wheel. This wheel has 38 numbered slots in total, containing the numbers from 1 to 36 (red or black color) and the two green numbers 0 and 00.
While the differences in roulette wheel layouts are quite important for the game, the differences between different roulette table layouts are minor, and have virtually no impact on the game itself.
If the roulette game you play features announced bets, there might be another part of the roulette table layout, the so-called racetrack. This is a representation of the roulette wheel number sequence, with a sector for each of the announced bets.
The betting area known as “racetrack” got its name because of its similarity to a racing circuit.
The announced bets are generally placed directly on the roulette table after being announced by the player. The racetrack makes placing these bets simpler and also lets players know that they have the option to place them, as the announced bets are not available at every roulette table.
Now that you know the differences between the single zero and double zero roulette table and wheel layouts, you should be able to pick the best roulette game in a casino and play roulette efficiently. European and French roulette is better for the player, as I explain in detail in my article about roulette odds.
If you already have a deep understanding of roulette and you want to take your game to another level, feel free to check out my roulette strategies that are aimed at increasing your chances of leaving the casino with a win, while also preserving the fun and excitement you can experience at the roulette table.
Roulette is one of the most popular casino games in the world. That means, apart from other things, there is a huge amount of content about this game online. Some of the content is legitimate and presents things as they really are. However, there is a plethora of websites that try to mislead people and get them to play roulette thinking they are actually going to win money in the long run.
Unfortunately, that is not possible. It’s impossible to “beat” properly working roulette in the long run, and to keep winning money from the casino. The inability to beat roulette is deeply embedded in the mathematical and statistical fundamentals of the game. I will get deeper into this later on.
Keep reading this article to find out why roulette is impossible to beat, and why the often-presented roulette strategies that promise consistent winnings simply don’t work. I hope to let you know which strategies to avoid and why, so that you don’t get fooled by the very tempting but often misleading information that can be found online.
Of course, it’s possible to win money playing roulette. You just have to be a little lucky to walk out of a casino with more money that you came in with. However, in this article, I will talk about winning in the long term, in which the luck factor cancels out and you are left with pure mathematics and statistics.
I consider the strategies in this article fraudulent, because they often promise players big and consistent winnings, which is a promise they simply can’t keep. However, you can still use some strategies to play roulette as efficiently as possible, and actually maximize your chances of leaving the casino with a win. Read about them in my article on roulette strategies that work.
I would like to start by explaining why every bet placed on the roulette table causes the player to lose money in the long run. As I already mentioned, this is connected to roulette odds, and to how the game works mathematically.
This information is pretty basic, but I wanted to include it for people who just came into contact with roulette or gambling in general for the first time, because it’s these people who are the most susceptible to falling for the strategies I will talk about in this article. If you are already aware of the mathematics of roulette, feel free to skip to the next part of this article.
Every casino game can be characterized by the so-called return to player (RTP), which describes the percentage of each placed bet returned back to the player, statistically. If a game had an RTP of 100%, the chances of winning or losing would be the same. However, casino games almost always (excluding some rare exceptions) have a lower RTP.
Roulette is not an exception. The RTP of the European roulette is 97.3%, while the RTP of American roulette is 94.74%. That means that if a player bets $100, he statistically “wins” $97.30 in European roulette, or $94.74 in American roulette. As these winnings are lower than the original bets, it’s quite clear that the player statistically loses money on each roulette bet.
The player statistically loses money on each roulette bet.
A house edge is the statistical edge the casino has over players. It can be calculated as:
House edge = 100% – RTP
That means that European roulette has a house edge of 2.7% and American roulette has a house edge of 5.26%. This means that for every $100 a player bets, the casino wins $2.70 in European roulette and $5.26 in American roulette in the long run.
Feel free to read more about this in my article about roulette odds, which includes the RTP and the house edge of this game.
What you need to know for the purpose of understanding this article is that there is no way of beating roulette, because you statistically lose money with every single bet you place, regardless of the type of bet you make or how much you bet. There is simply no way around that.
It’s finally time to get to the specific roulette strategies that actually don’t work, but are often presented as a surefire way to make money in a casino.
Many websites present these strategies as a surefire way to make money online, because their only goal is to make you register at an online casino using their link, which makes them money. They don’t care about the fact that they are lying to their readers, and the scam strategies in this article can be very tempting at a first glance, especially when deceptive information is presented.
That’s precisely why they are glorified by such a large number of websites, and why you should take the information about these strategies that can be found on other sites with a grain of salt.
Full disclosure: The Casino.guru website also generates income by players registering in online casinos. However, we are always truthful, and we do everything we can to present information as objectively as possible. We try to educate people about gambling and help them choose the best casino to play in, if they decide they want to play casino games online.
By far the most popular roulette scam strategy is Martingale (also known as the roulette double-up strategy). This strategy is also very simple, which might have helped its popularity, as pretty much anyone can use it without any research or studying.
Note that Martingale is a betting strategy that can be used in more or less any casino game (with some limitations, of course). However, it’s most widely known in connection with roulette, and that’s why I’m including it in this article. This will be the case for more of the strategies you’ll find in this article.
The Martingale strategy works in cycles. The length of the individual cycles varies, but each of them should result in the player winning $1 or losing everything. I’ll start with the winning cases and talk about the losing later on.
All of these cases were successful for the player, but as you can probably already tell, the last one was much worse than the first two. The player lost nine bets in a row, only winning the tenth one. That means that he had to bet $512 just to win $1 from the entire cycle. The rapidly increasing bet sizes are one of the main issues with the Martingale strategy.When using Martingale, it’s quite easy to run out money, being unable to place the next bet.
For the purposes of this article, I chose to have the initial bet in (almost) all strategies set to $1. Of course, in real world, the initial bet can be lower or higher, depending on the player’s bankroll and the limitations from the casino.
There is a very nice logical explanation why Martingale should work. If you keep doubling your initial bet, the roulette ball must sooner or later land on a number which grants you a win. Right?
Yes, that’s true. With the number of attempts approaching infinity, the probability of overall failure approaches 0. That means that with infinite resources and no limitations from the casino, you will eventually manage to win and finish a cycle with net winnings of $1.
With infinite resources and no limitations from the casino, the entire system would work. However, as you have probably already guessed, these two conditions are never met in the real world. Let’s look deeper into these problems.
In the real world, every single player has a limited bankroll. That means that if a player keeps using the Martingale strategy in the long run, he will eventually run out of money, making him/her unable to place another bet and finish a winning cycle.
Let’s look at this closer using an example. Imagine a player with a bankroll of $1,000 using the Martingale strategy with an initial bet of $1. With $1,000 available, the player can afford to place these bets in succession: $1, $2, $4, $8, $16, $32, $64, $128, $256. The total sum of these bets is $511 which means that after losing all of them, the player will have only $489 left in his account, making him/her unable to place the next bet, which should be $512.
Note that in this case, the player could continue by betting the entirety of the remaining bankroll, which is $489 in this case. If he wins, the bankroll would get back up to $978. That is lower than the starting bankroll, but the player could continue from this point by betting $1 again and continuing with the Martingale strategy.
However, for the purposes of my calculations, I have decided to leave this fact out and consider the case described above a failure. On the other hand, in my simulations that you can find later in this article, I allow the simulated players to continue by betting their entire balance when they don’t have enough money to follow the bet sizes, as dictated by the Martingale strategy.
Now, you might say that it’s really unlikely for this to happen. For this scenario to come true, the player must lose 9 bets in a row. At first glance, it might seem that this never happens, however, it does happen. And it happens more often than you might think.
The probability of losing an even chance bet 9 times in a row on European roulette is:
(19/37)^9 = 0.0025 = 0.25%
Yes, it’s a small number. However, this probability means that statistically, 1 of roughly 402 Martingale cycles will result in losing 9 bets in a row, causing the player to be unable to place another bet.
Of course, after building their bankroll to at least $1023, the player can afford to lose 9 bets in a row, because he will have enough money to place the 10th bet of $512 after losing all of the previous bets. After this point, only 1 of roughly 784 cycles ends up causing the player to be unable to place another bet.
The probability of losing one cycle with a sufficient bankroll is therefore pretty low. However, to consistently win money using the Martingale strategy, you have to repeat the entire process thousands of times, which means that sooner or later you will lose your entire bankroll. The simulations of the Martingale strategy that you will find later on in this article demonstrate this fact perfectly.
Apart from the issues with the bankroll, the Martingale strategy is also limited by the bet sizes allowed by the casino you are playing in. Of course, the minimum and maximum table limits differ across different casinos and games, but generally speaking, the maximum allowed bet is generally only a few hundred times higher than the minimum bet.
When playing in online casinos, you can generally use multiple online roulette games with different table limits to overcome these limitations. This isn’t very practical, but it can be used to lower the impact of bet size limitations on the effectiveness of the Martingale strategy.
And, even if you use multiple roulette tables to get around the bet size limits, your maximum bet size would still be limited. So, even if you had infinite bankroll (which means that you wouldn’t be affected by the aforementioned problem #1), you would still be limited by the maximum allowed roulette bet you can find.
As you might have already noticed, the probability of losing 9 or 10 bets in a row in one cycle is pretty low. And losing 100 of these cycles in a row also isn’t very probable. In fact, if you had a bankroll which allowed you to place 10 bets of in a row after losing all of the previous bets (from $1023 to $2046) and you wanted to win only $100, the probability of you succeeding would be:
(1-(19/37)^10)^100 = 0.88 = 88%
So, with a goal of winning $100, you would succeed with a probability of 88%. In the remaining 12% of cases, you would end up losing a significant portion of your bankroll and being unable to place another bet.
With a goal of $200, your chance of reaching this would be 77.5%, with a goal of winning $500 it would be 52.8% and with a goal of winning $1,000 it would be 27.9%. As you can see, the probability of ending up winning decreases with higher targeted wins, which is, of course, logical.
Problem #3 with the Martingale strategy lays in the fact that it tends to work at first, which causes players to become overconfident, thinking that the strategy will keep working forever. Unfortunately, that’s not the case. If they keep using the Martingale strategy long enough, they will eventually lose the entire bankroll.
If the players were able to recognize the right time to leave the casino, most of them would end up with a profit. However, there is no optimal time to stop playing, because there is no way of knowing when a losing streak is going to come. Additionally, there is no guarantee that the player won’t lose everything in the first cycle of the Martingale strategy.
The Martingale strategy is in many ways similar to betting on a strong favorite in a football match. The probability of losing one bet is not very likely, but you have to repeat it many times and wager a lot of money to achieve substantial profits. You will probably manage to be in the green at first, but sooner or later, the favorite will lose and your bankroll will be gone. Similar progressions happen with the Martingale strategy.
This goes to show that the Martingale strategy really doesn’t work in the long run. All of the players were slowly climbing up, but experienced a brutal losing streak that resulted in losing everything. This goes to show that the long losing streaks, although they seem really unlikely, are quite common in reality.
The Fibonacci roulette strategy is in many ways similar to the Martingale roulette strategy, but there are some differences between them. I will focus mostly on the ways in which these two strategies differ.
Firstly, let’s describe the way Fibonacci strategy works. It’s based on the famous number sequence of Fibonacci numbers. The sequence goes like this:
1 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 5 – 8 – 13 – 21 – 34 – 55 – 89 – 144 – 233 – 377 – 610 – 987 – …
You might have noticed (or you already knew) that each of the numbers in this sequence is a sum of two previous numbers. This quality of the sequence is used in the strategy, although it may not be noticeable at first.
Please note that all of the bets used in the Fibonacci strategy are even chance bets. That means that the player can choose to bet on red/black, even/odd or high/low, just like when using the Martingale strategy.
This strategy is not as easy to follow as the Martingale strategy. Here are some examples that might help you understand how it works.
The sequence doesn’t have to start with “1 – 1 – …” for this to work. You can basically start with any two numbers. The only important thing is that each number in the sequence must be a sum of the two previous numbers.
There is a big difference between the Martingale and the Fibonacci roulette strategy. In Martingale, a one winning bet is sufficient to complete a winning cycle. On the other hand, in the Fibonacci strategy, the player completes a winning cycle only when he manages to move his way back to the beginning of the sequence and win the bet corresponding to its first number. In other words, one win is not enough to reverse a series of losses.
That means that the Fibonacci strategy needs a bigger number of roulette spins to achieve the same winnings when compared to Martingale. However, it also means that the Fibonacci strategy is less risky.
The simulations of the Fibonacci strategy were done in practically the same way as the simulations of the Martingale strategy. The only difference was the strategy the 5 simulated players were using.
All in all, the Fibonacci strategy is in many ways similar to the Martingale strategy, but everything rises and falls at a slower rate. The bankroll rises more slowly, but the bet sizes also rise more slowly when you’re on a losing streak. That’s why the players got to play a bigger number of spins and, at the same time, their bankrolls peaked at lower amounts than when using the Martingale strategy, on average.
Both Martingale and Fibonacci strategies work by increasing or decreasing the wagered amount depending on the result of the individual spins. The D’Alembert roulette betting system works similarly, but the differences in wagered amounts are much smaller. That’s why this strategy is much safer.
The D’Alembert roulette strategy is also based on betting on one of the even chance bets (red/black, even/odd, high/low). It works like this:
Let’s say the player picked an initial bet of $6 and starts betting. He bets $6 and loses. He bets $7 and loses. He bets $8 and wins. He bets $7 and loses. He bets $8 and wins. He bets $7 and wins. In total, the player made 6 bets, out of which he won 3 and lost 3. Even though he won the same number of bets he lost, he is in profit of $3 overall. That’s exactly how this strategy works.
When a player using the D’Alembert roulette strategy wins the same number of spins than he loses, he will be in an overall profit defined by the number of roulette spins he won/lost. If he won 10 spins and lost 10 spins, he will be in a profit of $10, regardless of the size of the initial bet.
This might sound good, because it seems really nice that an equal number of winning and losing spins is required to achieve profit. However, with the so called even chance bets, your chances of winning and losing aren’t 50:50 (despite their name). In fact, you will statistically win only 48.65% of your spins and lose the remaining 51.35% in European roulette. This difference is sufficient to make the D’Alembert strategy not profitable in the long run.
The advantage of this betting system is the fact that it’s way less risky than Martingale and Fibonacci. Of course, there is still risk involved, but because the bets increase slowly during losing streaks, you don’t need such a big bankroll. You are less likely to lose your entire bankroll and you most likely won’t have problems with the roulette table maximum and minimum bets.
On the other hand, the slow progression of bet sizes can be also a disadvantage. Firstly, you most likely won’t win a lot of money using this strategy, at least when factoring in your initial bet and the number of spins you have to play.
Also, if you encounter a losing streak, you will find that it’s very hard to get back into the green. Actually, you need a comparable winning streak to do that. To compare it with other strategies, in Martingale you need just 1 winning spin to break the losing streak. In Fibonacci it’s more than that, but not as much as when using the D’Alembert system.
When simulating the D’Alembert strategy, I realized that I couldn’t set the initial bet to $1, because the bets are supposed to get smaller when players are winning. If the initial bet was $1, there would be no space for the bets to get smaller. And, at the same time, I didn’t want to get much higher than that, so that the results are somewhat comparable.
So, I decided to make the initial bet $5 for this strategy, and players also started with a bankroll of $1000. The players followed the D’Alembert strategy, and if they got to a bet of $1, they just kept betting $1 until they lost a spin and their bet got bigger.
You might have noticed that I took a closer look at the bet sizes and the percentages of wins and losses for the D’Alembert strategy. That’s because this strategy is supposed to work in a way that players profit when they win the same number of spins they lose. However, it just doesn’t work that way in roulette.
Altogether, the 5 players played 4937 spins, out of which they won in 2366 and lost in 2571. That means that the overall win percentage was only 47.9%. Because of higher number of losses than wins, the bet sizes generally kept growing. That also brings bigger downswings and upswings over time.
The Labouchere roulette strategy is more complicated than other strategies I mentioned in this article. It requires you to keep track of your bets and add numbers together, which might require some practice.
When using the Labouchere strategy, your “goal” is to get rid of all of the numbers in your betting line. If you manage to do that, your profit will be equal to the sum of the numbers you started with, regardless of the number of wins and losses you got along the way.Labouchere Strategy might be a bit more difficult to use, especially in a land based casino.
The math works quite nicely with this strategy, but you have to keep in mind that the chances are in favor of the casino. That means this strategy, of course, doesn’t make you magically beat roulette in the long run.
The Labouchere strategy is somewhere between Fibonacci and D’Alembert in terms of riskiness. The math really works and you will be in profit if you manage to win at least as many spins as you lose. However, you already know that’s not very likely to happen in the long run.
Also, if you encounter a losing streak, the numbers in your line will keep getting bigger and bigger. Your line will keep getting longer and you will have to wager more and more money. And what’s even worse, the bets will stay quite big even when you start winning. You will need a long winning streak to significantly decrease them.
The simulations of the Labouchere strategy are quite complex, because they depend on the list of numbers that the players start with. For the simulations down below I decided to use this betting line: 1-2-3-4-5-6.
The results of this simulation are quite interesting, especially the results of Player #4, who had a really great run. The simulations nicely show the main drawbacks of the Labouchere strategy – the increasing bet sizes that cause big upswings and downswings.
This strategy (with an initial betting line 1-2-3-4-5-6) seems to be the riskiest one out of the four strategies in this article. The players’ bankrolls were increasing quite rapidly, but the players also managed to lose everything the fastest on average. This might, of course, be very different if I chose a different betting line for this simulation.
As you can see, all of the strategies I covered in this article have some fundamentals that make it seem like they might work, but they will eventually lead to you losing your entire bankroll. That’s why I don’t recommend using them.
There are better strategies, which can maximize your chances of leaving the casino with a profit, or at least make sure that you have as much fun while playing as possible. Now, I am not saying they will enable you to maintain a profit in the long run, but they are the next best thing. If you are interested, read my article about roulette strategies that work.
Online casinos come into being and cease to exist almost every week. Nowadays, players can choose from more than 1 000 online casinos. Choosing the right casino from such a quantity might not be so easy. And it isn’t. When choosing an online casino, it’s necessary to consider things which are not clear to the layman at first glance.
While choosing the best casino for you, you should firstly be sure whether the casino meets the most important parameters, like accepting players from the country you live in and the reputation of the casino for fair gaming and paying out winnings. Secondly, you can choose a casino according to the availability of customer support in your language, attractiveness of the casino’s website design or according to their selection of games.
We try to list casinos that have most of these characteristics on our list of online casinos. Feel free to use our list of casinos with advanced filtering functionality to find the best online casino for you.
Always make sure that the casino fully accepts players from a country where you have a place of residence. Many countries formally ban online casinos from operating in their territory. In practise, not all countries apply this prohibition to every casino. Also, not all countries have influence on casinos based in gambling legislative havens. But many casinos prefer retreating and not accepting players from such countries.
If you are from such a country, you may find that a casino will allow you to register and play, but in case of winning, it will require a proof of residence from another country. They will invoke this on their terms & conditions.
TIP: If in doubt, it’s best to ask the casino about it through online chat, before depositing any money to it. Use the following question: “Hello, I am a player with a place of residence in (your country). I would like to know if you fully accept players from (your country). Can I register in your casino, deposit money, play, win, and then also withdraw my winnings?” If answered positively, take a screenshot of the chat and save it.
An online casino is like an insurance company. You will only find out whether you have a good insurance company after a harmful event and the insurance company compensates you fairly for the damage. You will only find out whether you play in a good casino or not, after you win a substantial amount and the casino easily pays out your money. There are many documented cases where online casinos have directly cheated the players.
Because of such practices, it is good to check the reputation of an online casino before deposting money. We do this for you and we regularly check the reputation of all the casinos on our list. If we find that any casino acts unethically, we will delete it.
TIP: It’s important to realize that a new casino can cheat you even though it doesn’t have any public complaints yet. It takes some time for first players to report a negative experience with a casino, and you might very well be the first one to complain. The inverse can also be true. There will most likely be at least some complaints about big casinos with large numbers of players, in spite of their honest behavior.
Every online casino is operated officially from some country (or territory with a special statute – jurisdiction). To make it possible to operate an online casino from a specific country, this country has to have friendly legislation towards online gambling. Licences are issued either by the state that wants to regulate and tax the online gambling of its own citizens (UK, Belgium, Romania, etc.), or by jurisdictions that want to allow casinos to do international business (Malta, Curaçao, Gibraltar, etc.).
If a casino stubbornly refuses to pay you your legitimate winnings, the only possibility that remains is to turn to the regulator who issued the license to the casino. Only then will it show how important it was to choose a casino according to who issued their licence. A good regulator should always stand independently on the side of fair gambling. He should fairly assess and investigate every official complaint. In case of a serious violation of the rules by a casino, it may accede to revoke their licence.
In practice, with some regulators you won´t even be able to access a contact form in order to submit a complaint (Costa Rica, Panama, Anjouan, Seychelles). In this case, against the willfulness of a casino, you don’t have any chance.
With some regulators you might have a chance of obtaining justice, however, their approach will generally be lax. Here we can include Curaçao and Gibraltar.
On the other side of the spectrum, stand respected licencing authorities like Malta, Alderney and Isle of Man. In case of a conflict with a casino licensed by some of these authorities, you have a pretty decent chance of obtaining justice.
Again, a parallel with the insurance companies can help us here. Would you insure your house with an insurance company, which annually collects less money than the value of your house? Most likely not. If your house burned down, the insurance company wouldn’t have the money to pay you and you would have to sue them. Maybe that would send them into bankruptcy, and you wouldn’t see your money anyway.
It is similar with online casinos. If you happen to win a huge amount of money in a small casino, it will cause quite a disruption to its cash-flow. The casino’s motivation to act dishonestly will be very strong in such a case. In the worst case scenario, the casino will face insolvency. Then it is not about honesty or dishonesty, but rather about them simply not having the money.
Some slot machines have such a high variance, that you can win up to 5000-times your bet in just one spin. In such a case, by betting $50 you would win $250,000. Casinos do not like setting the betting limits on their games, so that they don’t discourage the most affluent players. More transparent casinos bypass this by setting a maximum limit for withdrawals. In such cases, you at least now see that a casino doesn’t have high revenues and a truly high win would take you years to withdraw. The least responsible casinos do not address this, and only hope that no one wins such a large amount.
In any case, before you start playing, estimate the financial strength of the casino. Always count with the best – with slot machines be sure that the casino can pay out even a win of 5000-times your maximum bet. If you by chance win a large amount and the casino does not pay you off, it will most likely impact your mental health.
Definitely also check the withdrawal limits. It would take you nearly 7 years to withdraw €250,000 by receiving €3,000 monthly. That is enough time for the casino to go bankrupt, and it would not pay you the rest of your money.
TIP: To make your situation easier, we estimate the financial strength of the casino for you. We show the withdrawal limits of every casino on our list. For every casino, we also try to estimate a win amount we consider unproblematic.
If you favor one specific game, you will most likely search for online casinos that have that exact game. Our list of casinos will certainly help you find a casino that operates games by your favorite game provider.
Player preferences vary. Some of them like table games – included blackjack, baccarat or roulette. If you like these types of games, it will certainly please you if a casino has a selection of several different variants and types of blackjack or roulette.
If classic roulette was not enough, some casinos like to experiment with brand new types of roulette. Examples include a type of roulette played with two balls and a chance to win the jackpot – Double ball roulette, and roulette with an additional type of bet – Key Bet roulette. Both of which you can find in an inovative LeoVegas casino, also found on our list.
If you prefer playing games with a live dealer, which are becoming more and more favored, our list will help you once again.
Another category of games are slot machines. The difference between casinos lies in the number of games they offer. If you like slot machines the most, check if a selected casino offers enough games to choose from. If you like classic slots like Sizzling Hot Deluxe or Book of Ra, or you want to play for millions of euros at Mega Moolah slot, you’ll be pleased to find your favourite game added on a list of games.
Do you prefer scratchcards? Many casinos don’t offer this less popular type of game, but you will find them in some of them – our list will also help you to find casinos offering scratch cards.
TIP: If you do not currently have any favorite game, you can try many casino games for free at our website. For every game, we list all the casinos that should offer it.
Many casinos try to translate their site into as many languages as possible. If a casino focuses on a specific country, it often provides customer support directly in the language of that country. If you are not able to speak English, a support like this can be a big plus for you.
A translated website and terms & conditions will make it easier to understand the rules of a casino. To answer potential questions or solve small disputes, you won’t have to ask your English speaking friend for help.
While visiting an online casino, you often need to verify ambiguities about bonuses, terms & conditions, or the operation of the site.
In the case of customer support, the following applies: the faster, the better. Ideally, customer support will include a 24/7 live chat, with a helpful and friendly person on the other side. The exact opposite is an email address, where you can send your questions and complaints, and then wait three days for an answer; or a phone number you are not able to get through.
Every online casino tries to attract visitors with promotions in the form of bonuses. The correct use of bonuses can significantly help a regular player reduce the costs of his hobby. Some players even solely focus on bonus abuse to reach a long-term profit.
If you are a player in a casino, it is good to find sense in the tangle of bonuses and their requirements, even if bonus abuse is not your goal. While with some bonuses it’s always beneficial to accept them, others have such unfavorable conditions set that it’s simply not worth it. An example is a deposit bonus, where wagering requirements apply to a deposit and a bonus amount together. With high wagering requirements, this bonus will unnecessarily limit you in your bets and also in not being able to withdraw your winnings until you meet the wagering requirements.
The website of an online casino creates that famous first impression of the casino, but it also influences how much will you enjoy playing in it. Of course, you can also play in a casino with an opaque and poorly functioning website, but it’s not as enjoyable.
The rule of thumb is: big casinos generally have highly developed websites. The web design of a casino can become a place for competitive struggle between casinos. For example, MrGreen casino from our list takes pride in its modern look, which is also easy to navigate, even on a smaller screen.
Worse looking websites may suggest a low budget, a starting casino, or a weak IT team. But certainly do not make a definitive opinion about a casino from your impression of its website.
The modernity of the current information era have caused online players to not only want to play on a PC, but also on their mobile phones or tablets. Why sit at the computer, when you can comfortably settle into an armchair, or take your games with you anywhere you go?
It is therefore natural that the availability of mobile games is becoming a new standard of quality in the online casino world. We also help you to be sure that your selected casino does not lag behind in supporting mobile-casino games. For every casino on our list we give information about its mobile-friendliness as well.
While choosing an online casino, it certainly is useful to consider its deposit and withdrawal options. Not insignificant are the fees for a debit card payment, but also how long you will wait for your withdrawal. In case of transferring money to a bank account, it can take as long as seven days.
Many players find it handy to use internet wallets like Skrill or Neteller, or even prepaid cards such as Paysafecard. Less widespread options are making deposits through a mobile operator. Not every casino offers such deposit options. Therefore, on our list of online casinos, we didn’t forget to mention payment options for every casino.
A bonus represents a form of a reward you get for opening an account in a casino, deposting money or real money betting. The most common form of a bonus is a credit which you can play with and which, after fulfilling certain conditions, will be credited to your account.
Other common forms of bonuses are the so-called free spins, or a return of portions of the money lost (cashback). Bonuses prolong your game and give you a second chance if you lose. You play further, even though you have already lost your original deposit, and although bonus requirements are often quite restrictive, you still have a chance to turn your bonus into withdrawable winnings.
Casino bonus allocation and withdrawal is only available after meeting certain conditions. Be sure to carefully read the detailed version of the conditions on the casino’s website. If you don’t understand anything, do not hesitate to contact the casino customer support.
For each of the casinos and bonuses we reviewed, we’ve listed the most important bonus conditions, including wagering requirements, maximum withdrawal limits and allowed games.
You should only play in casinos with a good reputation. You can try to find the information about the reputation of a casino by searching for “name of casino complaints” using a search engine, or looking up the casino on the industry website askgamblers.com. If you find multiple justified complaints, do not open an account with this casino, no matter how attractive the bonuses are that it offers.
CasinoGuru has already conducted this research for you, so the fastest way to uncover the reputation of a casino based on publically available player complaints is to check our online casino reviews.
The majority of casinos put these types of formulations into their terms and conditions: “The casino reserves the right to change, cancel, remove or refuse any bonus in accordance with its own decision.” For regulatory licensing, casino bonuses are only given as a gesture of goodwill by the casino. That is why these terms and conditions are permitted. Especially after winning a larger amount, casinos can try to accuse you of bonus abuse and void your winnings.
If a casino willfully decides not to pay out your winnings from bonuses, you remain virtually powerless. You can only try go public with it, and hope the casino changes its mind to protect its reputation. Make sure you read our casino reviews carefully in order to avoid casinos which often use these terms against their players.
we appreciate casinos which don’t have these types of clauses in their conditions, and are always prepared to play by clear rules. Check out our casino reviews. If we find a casino uses strict bonus terms against their players, you will find these complaints in our review.
Bonus hunting is the intentional abuse of bonuses, in order to make a long term profit. The golden era of bonus hunting was 10 years ago, when it was enough to know how to play Blackjack, and players could get to a decent amount of winnings from bonuses alone.
Naturally, casinos try to prevent such abuse, and so today, bonus hunting is harder and more risky than before. Contemporary bonus hunting is mainly about the high variance of game strategy. In other words, it could lead you to either lose everything, or win at least 20-times the bonus amount. It requires a good starting capital, a clever choice of games and game strategy, as well as a thorough knowledge of the terms and conditions. The main risk is that on average, you only convert 1 bonus out of 25, and then if casino refuses to payout that bonus, you don’t win anything. Some other casinos wouldn’t even give you back your deposit. If you are interested, check out our dedicated article about bonus hunting.
Deposit bonuses are offered by practically every casino. That’s why it is important to understand their conditions and specifics. Deposit bonuses are given in the form of free credit, with which you can play normally, the same way you play for real money. If you manage to meet all the bonus requirements, the residual credit transforms into real money, which can usually be withdrawn along with your winnings.
The maximum bonus amount is often limited and so you won’t get a bigger bonus, even if you deposit a larger amount. But if you deposit an amount that is lower than the minimum deposit limit, you won’t get any bonus at all. The minimum deposit is usually an amount of 10€ or a currency equivalent.
You cannot withdraw bonuses immediately – you always need to use them in the casino first (rollover requirements or wagering requirements). Bonus rollover means that the sum of your bets in casino games must exceed a certain multiple of its original value. With a bonus of 100€ and wagering requirements of 30, you need to rollover 3000€. If you play slots and you spin for 10€, you have to spin 300-times (regardless of wins and losses). Players lose most bonuses before fulfilling their wagering requirements.
So, clearly, the rollover requirements with just the bonus amount counted are usually better. However, it also depends on the bonus amount and on the rollover requirements multiple.
For example, a 100% bonus with 20x bonus + deposit rollover requirements is exactly the same as a 100% bonus with 40x bonus rollover requirements. Similarly, a 500% bonus with 30x bonus + deposit rollover is comparable to 500% bonus with 30x bonus rollover (for a 100€ deposit you need to rollover 18000€ in the first case and 15000€ in the second case), but in the case of the 100% bonus the difference is bigger (6000€ in the first case vs 3000€ in the latter, so the rollover in the first case is double).
There are also special bonuses that let you withdraw your winnings even before you meet the rollover requirements. First you play with your original deposit, and only after losing it are you able to start to play with a bonus. If you were successful in a game with your deposit, you can give up your bonus and withdraw your money. Bonuses, in this case, act like a second chance. There are not many casinos offering such favorable bonus terms. We recommend Quasar Gaming which offers this type of bonus and enjoys an excellent reputation.
At most casinos, the deposit and bonus are united to form one big bonus. There are usually half as big rollover requirements as there are with separate bonus amounts. Even so, this form of bonus is less advantageous. You are limited on your play by the bonus requirements (maximum bet amount, list of bonus games etc.). And if you win right at the beginning of your bonus, even with your original deposit, you only get your money after meeting the rollover requirements. If you give up your bonus, you lose all your winnings, and the casino would only give you back your original deposit.
Because of these restrictions, some bonuses aren’t worth taking, and it is better to play with a deposit alone. To help you in your decision, we specify the advantages of each bonus we recommend.
In addition to rollover requirements, the players needs to pay attention to some other rules:
Maximum amount of converted credit – If you manage to meet all the bonus requirements, the bonus credit is converted into real money. The bonus conditions may state a limit for the maximum amount of bonus credit that can be converted into real money. Let’s say that this limit is set to be 5-times that of your original deposit. If you reach a credit worth 3000€ using a 100€ bonus and then you meet the rollover requirements, the casino will nevertheless credit your account with only 500€.
Time limit – A casino sets the period of time in which you have to meet the bonus conditions. Mostly it is a calendar month and after this time, the bonus is void.
Maximum bet limit – A casino limits the maximum bet amount when playing with the bonus. The reason for this is to prevent bonus hunting. Aggressive games with high variance suit bonus hunters – the easiest way would be to bet the entire bonus in one round of roulette on a single number, in the hope of winning 36-times the bonus amount. Meeting the rollover requirements with this amount will be very easy. You just need to change your game strategy to a strategy with a lower variance and smaller bets.
It is possible to get around these conditions on bet amounts using the so-called gamble button. This button allows a 50% probability to double your winnings. Using this functionality considerably raises the variance of a game. Therefore, some casinos limit the win amount they allow you to double in their conditions. However, it is not enforced in the game, so you have to keep an eye on it by yourself, with reference to the casino’s bonus terms. Many casinos do not allow their players to use the gamble option when playing with a bonus.
Games in which you can meet the rollover requirements – Casino allows their players to rollover the bonus only in some games. Others don‘t count the entire amount of bets in some games into the rollover requirements (or expressly prohibits some certain games from contributing). We have included a simple table below to illustrate:
If you wanted to qualify for a withdrawal to rollover an amount of €1,000 and you only play roulette, you would need to bet 1000/0.25 = €4,000 in total. This also helps to prevent bonus hunting. Blackjack has a payout ratio of 99.5 %. While betting, on average, you lose less, and the lower contribution to WR will force you to bet more times to meet these requirements.
Casinos want passionate players who play for fun and not experts who calculate how to take money by playing casino games. Before depositing money, always make sure that your favourite game isn’t excluded from the bonuses.
Many deposit bonuses are worth it. They let you play for longer and boost your chances of winning. Bonuses which aren’t worth it are those where the wagering requirements merge your deposit with a bonus and the bonus amount is less than 100%.
Thanks to no deposit required, you can not only play in a casino, but also win real money, without depositing a penny. Usually you just need to register, and after a while a bonus credit will be added to your account with no deposit required. Don’t expect huge amounts, however. The standard bonus amount is €10, and you will only occasionally find a better offer.
If you are already familiar with no deposit bonuses, check out our list of the latest no deposit casino bonuses. You can use the filter to view only bonuses available for your country, or for selected games.
This is a way casinos try to attract new players. They hope that a game will catch you, and after you lose the free bonus, you will deposit your own money. At least you will get familiar with the casino, and maybe even visit it again in the future. You can also obtain a no deposit bonus on other special occasions, aside from opening an account:
These can differ slightly in individual casinos. Again, we recommend you carefully read the conditions on the website of each casino. When you aren’t sure, ask a customer support agent. If the casino does not have a bulletproof reputation, make a screenshot of the conversation, just in case. We list all the basic conditions on our website. The basic conditions include:
Some casinos promote no deposit bonuses, but they only give them to you if you explicitly ask for it through customer support. In many cases, you need to use an exclusive bonus code to qualify for a no deposit bonus. Sometimes you have to enter the bonus code when registering (or after you register, redeem it in the cashier), so make sure you know how to claim the bonus before you register.
We include information about how to claim each no deposit bonus we list. Plus, be sure to check out the reputation of the casino offering the bonuses. There are unfortunately too many cases of players trying to get their winnings from no deposit bonuses, only to find out the casino won’t pay them. Check out our honest casino reviews based on our research from many websites where players post their complaints.
No deposit bonuses are appealing, the ideal way to try the world of casinos without risking a dime. But you shouldn’t be fooled by them. For long term play, it is necessary to choose a casino in accordance with other parameters.
Free spins promotions present an additional bonus, which you get only in combination with a deposit bonus or as a form of no deposit bonus – e.g. free spins no deposit offers. You will be able to spin several tens of times, sometimes even hundreds of times, on one of the most popular slot machines (or a combination of multiple slot machines), such as Starburst.
If you are already familiar with how do free spins promotions work, you can go ahead and check our list of free no deposit promotions which include free spins. Be sure to check the reputation and rating of each casino before you register and claim your free spins.
You will not be able to withdraw your winnings immediately – you will usually have to roll them over 50-100 times in other games. It works the same with bonuses. Thanks to a small percentage advantage that casinos have in every game, your winnings from these spins can easily gradually lower to zero. Casinos count on this. Your only chance is to quickly gain a bigger win, with which you then succeed to meet the rollover requirements. Even if you manage to do it, casinos also limit the maximum credit amount converted into real money. Generally it is 100€ or less. Free spins are a genius marketing tool. Every spin is set to a minimum bet in a given game – for example for 0.10€ on Starburst. Thirty five free spins certainly sounds better than a 3.50€ bonus. But the true value the bonus actually is only 3.50€.
For historical reasons, free spins are managed in a game provider system. That’s why you don’t see them in your casino account. You see them only when you open the game where you can play them (e.g. Starburst). As for the wins from free spins, these are usually credited right into your casino balance. However, they are considered to be a bonus, and are subject to the usual bonus conditions (rollover requirements, maximum withdrawal, allowed games etc.).
Free spins are a nice bonus. They give you chance to try slots for real money without risk. You can get familiar with casinos before making a deposit. But free spins certainly shouldn’t be a primary factor when choosing an online casino. The probability that something real will remain in your account at the end of the day is very low.
A cashback bonus is a percentage rate, usually around 5-25% of total net losses for a given period or from a given game, which is credited back to your account.
Sometimes it’s in the form of real money, but more often it will be in the form of a bonus credit. You will need to rollover the bonus again. In contrast with free spins or deposit bonuses, you will need to rollover it fewer times (max. 10-times). Individual conditions between casinos can, of course, vary. A maximum cashback amount is also often specified.
The cashback amount is usually calculated from your deposit. So, the winnings from no deposit bonuses do not qualify for a cashback. Many casinos also require players to have a balance of either zero or less than $5, for example. So if you deposit $2,000 and lose $1,000, you won’t qualify for a cashback. A cashback bonus can’t be combined with any other bonuses. Therefore, when you are clearing your deposit bonus, you do not qualify.
We will explain it all with the following examples. An imaginary casino offers a weekly cashback of 20% with a €50 limit.
Player A – In the last week the player lost €200, therefore 200 x 0,2 = €40 will be returned to the player’s account
Player B lost €400. The player should get a bonus of €80 (400 x 0,2), but because there is a maximum limit set, only €50 will be returned to their account.
Top up bonus is the exact opposite of a classic cashback bonus. You have won, and in addition, you get a bonus from your net winnings for a given time period, or from a given game. However, the bonus percentage is lower, most often 3-10%.
Even rarer is the bonus on total bets. In this case, you get a fixed percentage from your total bets in a game. It doesn’t matter if you won or lost. With this bonus, you can get decent sums, as wins and losses aren’t netted. If you can find a bonus on total bets through short term promotions on a certain game, do use it.
The same recommendation goes for any type of cashback bonus, since it is always a net gain for you. Cashback bonuses lower the casino’s advantage – that’s why it is an important factor in finding the ideal casino for you.
In the past, VIP programs and loyalty bonuses were provided by the world’s biggest brick and mortar casinos, which tried to tie their customer to them in this way. Loyalty is nowadays gaining appreciation in the world of online gambling. Most online casinos today offer some kind of loyalty program – either a full featured VIP Club with multiple loyalty levels and benefits, or a simple comp points system with points that can be converted into cash or a bonus.
Usually, every player becomes part of the club. However, there are still some casinos where the loyalty rewards are not for all players – by invitation only. On the other hand, many casinos will approve loyalty status from a different casino if a player can prove it. According to the volume of funds put into play, you obtain club points (for example 10 points for every €100). Depending on the total of your points, you are given a status level – silver, gold, platinum, diamond etc…
Each status level gives players the chance to get progressively better benefits. Casinos want to motivate you to only play with them, climb the status ladder and forget about their competition. They will also want to give you a feeling of prestige and importance.
The most basic loyalty bonus is an exchange of club points into bonus money, which represents a form of a cashback bonus. These VIP points include other benefits, for instance:
There is no reason for not joining these loyalty clubs, and most of the time, players are entered automatically. You can only benefit from them. But do not get carried away. Beware your ego, and also consider if it is really worth playing at your selected casino. It might not be, and various gifts might only serve to be a cloak to cover your eyes.
Be sure to check out our casino reviews for other important factors you should consider when deciding in which online casino to play for real money. The reputation of an online casino represents the most important factor. It’s not really worth getting various exclusive loyalty benefits if the casino will do everything they can to prevent you from withdrawing your winnings.
Bonus hunting, bonus whoring, casino whoring, bonus abusing. All of these terms describe the activity of players who try to make money in the long run by using bonuses offered by online casinos. And many of them were and are still successful, although this practise is getting harder and harder to pull off as time goes by.
Are you curious how casino bonus hunting works and whether you can use it to make money in online casinos in today’s environment? You’re in the right place to find that out.
In the past, bonus hunting was relatively easy, because online casinos’ bonuses were big, had low wagering requirements and no restrictions on allowed games. That meant that players could just use the bonuses and rely on their positive expected values to make a profit in the long run.
Let’s say a player got a $200 bonus with WR of 25x. He is trying to meet the WR by playing a slot game with RTP of 98 %. Therefore, the casino has a 2 % edge, which means that the player statistically loses 2 % of every bet he makes. The expected value of a bonus in this case is $200 * (100 % – 25 * 2 %) = $100.
That’s pretty much how it used to work. Unfortunately, bonuses like this are a thing of the past.
Nowadays it’s completely different. Casinos have improved their calculations and generally don’t offer bonuses that can be cleared with profit with such ease. However, that doesn’t mean that players can’t still use casino bonuses to make money. It’s much more complicated though.
If you’re wondering how to make money gambling online, the method I’m about to describe might present a good answer. However, keep in mind that it’s definitely not for everybody.
Bonus hunting nowadays is based on high volatility and requires a big bankroll, willingness to spend a lot of time and strong nerves to overcome losing streaks that are unavoidable with this kind of a strategy.
You have to repeat this strategy numerous times in order to be profitable. Of course, you can be lucky the first time, however, you can also be unlucky and still be losing money after 100 tries. For the 96 % RTP slot I used in my simulations, the probability of being in the reds after 100 bonuses is still a bit over 30 %. After 500 bonuses, it drops to 7,5 %. So, even after 500 bonuses, there is still a chance to be in red numbers. Although, that doesn’t change the fact that this strategy is profitable in the long run.
However, there are still bonuses that can easily be cleared with profit, even in the current state of online gambling market. No deposit bonuses and freebies can be used to make money, albeit very little of it. They don’t cost you anything and you can get a few bucks out of them.
This was a short summary of the entire article about bonus hunting. I wanted you to have a basic overview of the topic before getting started with the detailed information and instructions supported by simulations you can find below. Enjoy!
Bonus hunting reached its peak between 2000 – 2006. The online gambling industry was new. Awareness of all the gambling math formulas wasn’t that high among casino managers and so many casinos offered high bonuses with low wagering requirements (WR) and no restrictions on allowed games. Finding a 200% bonus with 25x wagering requirements was quite common.
Bonus hunters at that time were able to exploit the positive expected value of a bonus when played on a certain game. The formula for this is quite simple:
Expected value = 100% – (WR * HOUSE EDGE)
If you have a $200 bonus and play Blackjack with a HOUSE EDGE = 0.5% it means that with every bet you statistically can expect to lose 0.5% of your bet. When you turn over your money 20 times you can expect to end up with
100% – (20 * 0.5%) = 90% of your money
When you do the same on slots with RTP = 96% then you end up on average with 20 % of your starting bankroll. The bonus hunting strategy was very simple:
Casinos had to react, because players kept looking for instructions how to make money in online casinos and how to make money from online casino bonuses. The situation in the past allowed them to win big money in the casino, which, of course, wasn’t good for the casinos themselves.
After year 2006 the awareness of bonus hunting among casino managers significantly increased and now it’s extremely rare to find a bonus with a positive expected value. The best bonuses had an expected value close to 0.
The following picture simulates 5 players playing 1$ spins using a $200 bonus with WR 50x on a medium variance slot:
Due to RTP of around 96% and medium variance all 5 players hit the ground far before reaching the 10 000 spins required to meet WR. Even the best bonuses offered by casinos have a positive expected value of close to the deposit even if played on 98% RTP slots. That is the main reason why bonus hunting based on positive expected value is history.
But don’t be disappointed. There are still 2 other viable options for how to hunt for bonuses in online casinos.
Do you remember from history lessons how paleolithic tribes were classified either as hunters or gatherers? No deposit bonuses are closer to bonus-gathering than bonus-hunting. Don’t expect big prey but at least an animal won’t wound you. The gambling community calls these guys freebies.
No deposit bonuses are small bonuses given by casinos usually as a reward for registering a new account. The most common forms are free spins and free cash. You can play with these bonuses and win some limited amounts of money. Do this in 200 casinos and with a little luck you’ll end up with a few hundreds of $.
Free cash and free spins are offered as a form of marketing. If you are from a rich western country, you’ll get some kind of no deposit bonus in every second online casino. If you are from Russia or any other country famous for bonus abusing you’ll have problems to find them. I was trying hard and was barely able to fill the first page of no deposit bonuses for Russian players.
The first thing to do is that you have to find casinos which will give you a no deposit bonus. My list of no deposit bonuses is the perfect place to start.
Then you have to sign up. Keep in mind that these bonuses are a kind of trade between you and the casino.
To get the bonus you need to provide your personal details, email address and sometimes phone number. To get paid if you win you’ll need to prove that these details are correct, send your ID and maybe even make a deposit as another form of verification. That’s how casinos protect themselves from giving the bonus to the same players over and over.
Note: Please don’t create more than 1 account in 1 casino! You’ll never ever get paid anyway and you can piss the casino off and they may stop giving this bonus in the future. When I asked affiliate managers why they don’t want to give bonuses to players from certain countries, they replied that they had a lot of players from some countries with 10-20 accounts. They didn’t have to pay for any wins but they had to pay to the game provider for the free spins anyway.
So you have signed up and validated your email address and phone number. Sometimes you’ll need to ask for a bonus on live chat or provide some sort of bonus PROMO CODE.
The key is in finding a good balance. With too aggressive a strategy you’ll waste almost immediately 98% of your bonuses. For the remaining 2% you’ll end up with quite a big bankroll, but you’ll be hit with the maximal converted amount rule and you’ll get only 50-100 dollars. With too defensive a strategy you’ll lose all bonuses before meeting the wagering requirements.
Finding optimal strategy just by experience would be too inaccurate. To find the optimal strategy I have reverse-engineered 2 NetEnt slots (high variance with 98% and medium variance with 96% RTP) and carried out a lot of simulations. I have also modified those slots to 92%, 96% and 98% payout to observe the influence of RTP on your chances to win.
Playing a little with bet sizes around 0.50% of the original bonus value I have found out that the most effective bet in this case is 0.30% of the bonus. 0.30% of $100 bonus is $0.30. I state bet size in % of bonus as chances are equal for $0.03 bet and $10 bonus and for $0.30 bet and $100 bonus.
If maximal converted value is 5x bonus then a medium volatility slot is doing a little better. RTP is the most significant indicator for the success so you should pick your slot by RTP. Higher RTP works more effectively with lower bets. Same is true for the slot volatility.
Now imagine that you win in free spins $2 and your max. win is restricted to $50. The situation is a lot different as now you can cash-out up to 25 times of the original bonus which favors more high volatility games.
You can see that the effectiveness is crazy when you have no bet limit or very high bet limit. But also the chance to convert one bonus is very low: while for $100 bet on 98% RTP high variance slot it’s just 1.1% for $1 bet on the same slot chance to convert is 8.85% with 79% effectiveness.
Since the vast majority of no deposit bonuses have restrictions for maximal converted value I’m not stating the chance to convert the bonus in the table. If you decide to choose a bet for optimal effectiveness then the chance to convert a bonus is also quite good.
Conclusion: Free bonuses are a good option to make some money for a coffee or beer. But if you are eager to win more money (for a nice new bicycle for example) then read my next chapter which focuses on real bonus hunting.
I’ll show you now a bonus hunting technique which should still work. BUT at the same time I MUST WARN YOU that this technique is much riskier and requires much more work and knowledge than bonus hunting 15 years ago.
If you play normal 100% up to $100, 35x WR welcome bonuses with $10 bets played on 96% high variance slot then (according to my simulations) you convert on average 80% of the bonus value. That’s $60 made in the long run on every bonus.
You have an advantage on your side but you can be unlucky as well. Your chance to convert $200 bonus from the example above is around 4.9%. If you are very unlucky, you can make 50 attempts with no success.
You need a big bankroll when you start, accept the risk and be prepared to repeat this with 50-100 bonuses. Also your real converted value of a single bonus can vary from few hundreds up to few tens of thousands.
Despite the fact that average profit correlates with the number of bonuses played, your chance to be in total profit grows quite slowly.
After 200 correctly played bonuses there will be still almost 20% of players who will be in the red. Other players will make more than average but that won’t help you much if you are among those 20%, have spent weeks on chasing bonuses, and ended up in loss just due to bad luck.
And you may also run out of the bonuses – there are many hundreds of casinos but not many thousands of them.
My conclusion is that you should have at least $20000 to have a reasonably low chance of failure. Or you can either start with the best bonuses or take lower bonuses, choose slot with medium to low variance and try to build your bankroll gradually.
Bonus hunting of 15 years ago didn’t have this problem at all. You were getting profit from every bonus you played. If you are looking for a way how to win at the casino every time nowadays, you are simply out of luck. Unfortunately, there is no such thing anymore.
Now imagine that you have started to play this bonus hunting game. After 40 bonuses and $4000 lost you finally hit $7000 in one of the casinos. Will they pay you?
If you were really careful and haven’t broken any specific rule from bonus terms and conditions then the casino will most likely pay you at the end. But sometimes you’ll probably need to make your case public on one of the mediation forums like Askgamblers and escalate….sometimes repeatedly.
On the one hand a good casino manager may notice from your betting style that you are a bonus hunter. Your style with higher variance will differ a little from the style of casual players who are just killing their time in the casino. But most of the casinos will pay despite they think that you are a bonus hunter. They don’t want to risk their reputation for few thousand dollars.
Many casinos have introduced an “irregular play” clause with the intention of repelling bonus hunters. This clause usually states something like:
Some casinos managers confirmed to me that after they introduced this clause that it gets rid of most bonus hunters almost instantly without doing anything else.
I haven’t seen so far that any reputable casino would use this in case of dispute on some mediation platform. But the risk is still considerable. At the end the casino has the money in its account. If the casino decides to risk its reputation and not to pay you, you simply won’t get paid. No need to tell that 40 other casinos won’t return you your deposits either.
If you want to decrease the chance of being accused of bonus abusing by displaying irregular play then you must avoid making an obvious change in your game style. Or at least make attempts to disguise it.
An example for this would be to decrease your bet size to 10% of former bet size after you win high. Keep the same bet even after you win high and don’t give the casino an excuse not to pay you. This will increase the volatility of your betting strategy but not that much as you might think. And your long-term profit remains same. My simulation shows that dropping bet size after a big win to 10 % will decrease your chances of going bankrupt with $5000 budget from 36 % to 27 %.
Dropping bet size after a big win to 10 % will decrease your chances of going bankrupt with $5000 budget from 36% to 27%.
As you’ll need to play hundreds of bonuses you can’t be overly picky about casinos. But be especially aware of very small casinos with low revenues. Small unknown casinos can have monthly revenues of around $10 000. If a casino manager has a choice either to not pay to his employees or to not pay to some bonus hunter, guess which choice he will choose.
You should also keep in mind that you can’t choose the casino in which you’ll manage to convert your bonus. Which casino – out of all the casinos where you deposited – will be the one where conversion is successful is of course going to be decided by pure chance.
And even if you are good at all of the above, it will take you probably hundreds of hours to make some reasonable money. That is the main reason why I’m not doing this myself: with my skills I can make the same money in different activities (software development for example).
This is more likely to be a problem if you reside in one of countries where gambling is illegal or strictly regulated, or if you reside in country which is well known for bonus abusing.
In this case, your choice of casinos and bonuses is limited and you’ll never find the hundreds of bonuses required to play this strategy.
This is a condition which is much more important than it looks at first glance. If your bonus isn’t connected with a deposit then you can play with your real money without restrictions. If you are lucky, then you can forfeit the bonus and withdraw your win. If you are not lucky then you have a follow-up 2nd chance with the bonus.
If you have a bonus which is NOT CONNECTED TO A DEPOSIT then neither maximal bet restrictions nor game restrictions will be applied for RM play.
The biggest advantage is that you don’t need to increase your bankroll that aggressively as you don’t need any buffer for fulfilling the WR. I would recommend you to spin with 5% of your real money per round on any medium variance slot with high RTP. Withdraw when you increase your bankroll more than 7 times.
What’s really great about this type of bonus is that you statistically lose only a small part of your deposit (8-16%). Then you have the whole bonus to compensate it and make profit. That is truly a game changer – even a 25% bonus with 50x WR should be profitable in the long run under these circumstances.
After you have either lost the RM or if the bonus is connected with a deposit then follow the following advice:
Bonus size determines your buffer for wagering. You lose money by spinning and you gain money when you get the bonus. If bonus is played together with deposit, then bonuses below 25% are usually not profitable. Profitability of bonuses in range 25%-90% depends on bonus size and your options for how to play them. Bonuses over 90% are usually profitable.
Bonuses over 90 % are usually (not always) profitable. The profitability of lower bonuses generally depends on the WR and other factors.
This restriction is usually applied on bonuses not connected to deposit. If you come across this rule for bonus connected to the deposit the best advice is to keep hands off. An optimal way to play this bonus can be found in my how to play no deposit bonuses section.
The majority of casinos already know about high volatility bonus abusing. Some of them have added restrictions which prevent or limit the use of betting strategies which are too volatile.
WR are still quite overrated… Maybe a relic from 15 years ago when they were a very important part of the bonus hunting landscape.
With high-volatility bonus hunting WR just determine a relatively small part of your win which you’ll need to spend after you managed to hit a high win.
Imagine that your goal is to get to $3000 or more from a $100 bonus. In this case the difference in expected converted amount between 25X WR and 100X WR with 4% house edge is just $100 vs. $400 out of more than $3000. It’s considerable but not extremely important.
Your goal in this type of bonus hunting is to strike a balance between statistical profitability on one side and the risk of either bad luck or the casino won’t pay you on the other. Pushing volatility to extreme levels unnecessarily increases 2 previously mentioned risks. And as my simulations show you can comfortably achieve profit anyway without pushing too much.
My simulations show that for bonus hunting the most suitable slots are with medium or high variance and RTP over 96% (RTP is a very important factor). I was very surprised when I found out that it’s not necessary to push volatility into extreme levels – you are more comfortably profitable if you keep a reasonable balance, and your game style will be much closer to the style of a casual gambler.
After you have determined the slot RTP and estimated its variance, then check the following tables to choose the suitable bet size. Tables at the end of this article will give you an idea about your chances.
Even if you usually don’t need to push volatility to the extreme, I’ll tell you some tricks about how to increase it. These tricks may come in handy for very high bonuses:
Some slots have a feature which allows you to double your win or lose it with chance 50:50. This is the ultimate feature to regulate the volatility of a slot game: simply double up until you win high enough or until you lose. And since the chance is 50:50 you are statistically not losing anything.
By abusing this feature you can theoretically reach effectiveness of bonus conversion close to the game RTP. But your playing style will be very suspicious.
Be careful as this feature is usually prohibited or restricted in bonus conditions.
If you play a slot with 20 winning lines and hit a winning combination only on 1 line, the win is split among the bet on all 20 lines. So even if that one line won 10 coins, the bet for the whole round was 20 coins and you actually lost 10 coins. This happens most of the time with the exception of some special slots with features which allow you to win on all lines simultaneously.
The exact opposite is when you decrease the number of winning lines to 1. You either hit a combination which gives you 3-15000x of your bet or you lose. This trick increases volatility of the game 5-15 times (depending on the number of lines and other features of a game).
Note that with a lower number of lines the maximal bet allowed by game is usually decreased as well. However that is a good tradeoff if your maximal bet is already restricted by bonus conditions.
Be aware that some casinos already know about this trick and restrict maximal bet per winline when playing with bonuses.
If maximal bet limits are set as absolute values (max. $5 for example) you can increase your relative volatility by decreasing bonus size. So while $1000 bonus is not profitable, $200 bonus with all other conditions equal can be comfortably profitable.
Less is sometimes more.
I think that high volatility bonus hunting is nowadays still possible but it definitely isn’t for everyone. It’s for experts who can perform the required math, who are willing to read tons of casino terms of service, and who have a big enough budget to fund temporary losses.
And what about the future?
I don’t see a bright one for bonus abusing. More and more casinos are fixing the last cracks in their terms of service, which is why casino winning tips such as those in this article might only work for a limited time.
On top of that with increasing regulation the choice of online casinos will become more and more limited for everyone.
Countries like Peru which a few years ago had almost no idea about online gambling are now founding their own regulators and stop respecting licenses from trustworthy worldwide regulators like Malta.
Countries with freedom of speech like Czech Republic are adopting legislation for internet blocking like in Russia just to block foreign casinos and bookies.
When most players end up with a limited choice of 20-30 casinos then the times of bonus hunting will definitely be over.
I have run a number of simulations to build a picture of the chances to convert certain types of bonuses. If you’re looking for the best way to make money at casinos, these simulations might complete the picture. The best way to clear casino bonuses is right here.
Each of the following 12 tables shows statistics for the combination of 25x or 50x wagering requirements and one of my 7 reverse-engineered slots.
Each row displays values for certain bet size (denominated in % of original bonus). The displayed values are following:
bonus value x effectiveness > bonus cost
Effectiveness = Average converted amount x chance to convert
P.S.: medium/high volatility terms are not exact. If you want to be absolutely sure about the performance of specific slots then reverse-engineer them and make your own calculations. Slots with similar-looking volatility may differ in bonus conversion effectiveness at a rate of anywhere from 10-20%. I’m not publishing names of simulated slots on purpose – simply because I don’t want to encourage masses of players to get into bonus hunting.